author={Martin Feder and Warren W. Burggren},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
1. The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between skin and environment is commonplace in the vertebrates. In many lower vertebrates, the skin is the major or even sole avenue for respiration. 

Role of the Central Circulation in Regulation of Cutaneous Gas Exchange

Cutaneous gas exchange is also affected by adjustments in the absolute flow of blood to the skin, the pattern of distribution of blood within the cutaneous vascular bed, and the effects of central vascular shunting on gas partial pressures of arterial blood perfusing the skin.

Kinetics of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Exchange

The aim of this chapter is to compare the kinetics of gas exchange among the vertebrates and examine whether the rates of diffusion and chemical reaction pose any limitation to O2 and CO2 exchange.

Modeling of Gas Exchange in Lungs, Gills and Skin

The aim of this review is to discuss the models developed for analysis of gas transfer in vertebrate gas exchange organs and discuss the experimental data recently obtained in intermittently breathing amphibians and reptiles.

Introduction to the Symposium: Cutaneous Exchange of Gases and Ions

The study of cutaneous gas exchange is currently in the midst of several transitions. The first transition is from the study of skin-breathing as a curiosity or evolutionary relic in particular

The Regulation of Cutaneous Gas Exchange

Each particular gas exchange organ, including the human lung and metazoan integument inter alia, constitutes a test of the robustness of hypothesized general patterns and predictions.

Control of breathing in anuran amphibians.

  • L. GargaglioniW. Milsom
  • Biology
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
  • 2007

Recent Advances and Trends in the Comparative Morphometry of Vertebrate Gas Exchange Organs

Both the morphologist and the physiologist are addressing the oxygen diffusing capacity of the gas exchange organ, and each can answer the question in his own way.

Hypoxic boundary layers surrounding skin-breathing aquatic amphibians : occurrence, consequences and organismal responses

A substantial hypoxic boundary layer surrounded the skin in nearly every case, with the P(O2) at the skin-medium interface typically varying between 2 and 4 kPa at both 10 and 20-degrees-C.

Pulmonary and cutaneous O₂gas exchange: a student laboratory exercise in the frog.

An interactive undergraduate laboratory that allows a class of students to share equipment while assessing pulmonary and cutaneous respiration in frogs provided with an air/water choice and under enforced dive conditions is described.

The interplay of cutaneous water loss, gas exchange and blood flow in the toad, Bufo woodhousei: adaptations in a terrestrially adapted amphibian

Toads experiencing dehydrating conditions exhibit complex physiological and behavioral responses, some of which can potentially impact cutaneous gas exchange, an important component of total gas exchange in the xeric-adapted toad Bufo woodhousei.



Carbon Dioxide Exchange and its Effects on pH and Bicarbonate Equilibria in the Blood of the Amphibian, Xenopus Laevis

During short dives the blood shows changes characteristic of respiratory acidosis but longer dives result in a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis, but the fraction carried in red blood cells increases substantially, due to an increase in the haematocrit values.

An analysis of respiratory surface area as a limit to activity metabolism in anurans.

The data indicate that respiratory surface area does not impose a maximum limit on gas exchange in anuran amphibians.

The Effects of Dissolved O₂ and CO₂ on Metabolism and Gas-Exchange Partitioning in Aquatic Salamanders

Since CO, tensions are low in many natural waters, 02 might be expected to be more important than CO, as a controlling factor in fish respiration, and most authors agree that the primary factor regulating respiratory activity in fishes is Po2.

The influence of body weight on gas exchange in the air-breathing fish, Clarias batrachus.

  • J. Jordan
  • Environmental Science
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology
  • 1976

Gas Exchange and Transport During Intermittent Breathing in Chelonian Reptiles

Data on oxygen and carbon dioxide gas tensions in lung gas and blood from the central and peripheral arteries and veins have been measured in unrestrained, undisturbed turtles and tortoises are discussed in the light of the marked cardiovascular adjustments to intermittent breathing, which occur in chelonian reptiles.

Hemoglobin concentration in a new air-breathing fish.

  • E. S. Todd
  • Environmental Science
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology
  • 1972

Cutaneous respiration in seven sea-water teleosts.