CTX-M: changing the face of ESBLs in Europe.

@article{Livermore2007CTXMCT,
  title={CTX-M: changing the face of ESBLs in Europe.},
  author={D. Livermore and R. Cant{\'o}n and M. Gniadkowski and P. Nordmann and G. Rossolini and G. Arlet and J. Ayala and T. Coque and I. Kern-Zdanowicz and F. Luzzaro and L. Poirel and N. Woodford},
  journal={The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy},
  year={2007},
  volume={59 2},
  pages={
          165-74
        }
}
Since around 2000 - earlier in Poland and Spain and later in France and the UK - dramatic shifts have occurred in the prevalence and types of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in Europe. Before this watershed, most producers were nosocomial isolates, often Klebsiella spp. or Enterobacter spp. from specialist care units, and had mutant TEM or SHV ESBLs. Subsequently, CTX-M ESBLs have become dominant, with much greater penetration into Escherichia coli, and with many infections in… Expand
Global Surveillance Studies Covering Europe and including Esbl-producing Bacterial Isolates
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been increasingly reported in Europe since their first description in 1983. During the 1990s, they were described mainly as members of the TEMandExpand
Prevalence and spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe.
  • R. Cantón, Â. Novais, +4 authors T. Coque
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • 2008
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) represent a major threat among resistant bacterial isolates. The first types described were derivatives of the TEM-1, TEM-2 and SHV-1 enzymes during theExpand
Four-year epidemiological study of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a French teaching hospital.
  • L. Gibold, F. Robin, R. Tan, J. Delmas, R. Bonnet
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • 2014
TLDR
Study of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated in the teaching hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, France between 2006 and 2009 found that ESBL-producing bacteria constantly increased during the study period, unlike many studies, this increase was associated with the wide dissemination of three different CTX-M enzymes. Expand
Extended-spectrum β-lactamases: an update on their characteristics, epidemiology and detection
TLDR
It is essential to remain vigilant about identifying ESBLs both in patient isolates and through surveillance studies, as ESBL-producing Gram-negative pathogens will continue to be major contributor to antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Expand
Recent changes in the epidemiology and management of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae
TLDR
Empiric antibiotic coverage for resistant E. coli producing CTX-M enzymes should be considered in community patients presenting with sepsis involving the urinary tract, especially if a patient recently traveled to a high-risk area. Expand
Carriage of CTX-M type extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in gulls across Europe
TLDR
The data suggests that the environmental dissemination of ESBL is high from anthropogenic sources, and widespread occurrence of resistant bacteria in common migratory bird species utilizing urban and agricultural areas suggests that antibiotic resistance genes may also be spread through birds. Expand
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TLDR
The worldwide dissemination of ESBLs is a healthcare crisis that deserves special attention and among these, CTX-M, VEB and PER variants are of particular interest due to their widespread dissemination. Expand
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TLDR
Investigation of the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and trends in antibiotic use in the county of Östergötland, Sweden found there was a trend towards increased use of drugs with low ESBL selection potential, which was probably due to the increased prevalence ofESBL producers. Expand
First report of the types TEM, CTX-M, SHV and OXA-48 of beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli, from Brazzaville, Congo
TLDR
This high prevalence of detected ESBL, the high level of resistance to antibiotics raises fears of a high risk of multidrug-resistant bacteria and call on the authorities for a policy of monitoring resistance. Expand
High prevalence of CTX-M-15-producing O25b-ST131 Escherichia coli clone in Bulgarian hospitals.
TLDR
This study demonstrated for the first time the country-wide dissemination of a highly resistant B2 O25b-ST131 CTX-M-15 producing E. coli clone in Bulgaria. Expand
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References

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CTX-M: changing the face of ESBLs in the UK.
TLDR
The meeting concluded that the CTX-M genes have now become widespread in not only E. coli but other Enterobacteriaceae in the UK and this will represent a substantial threat to both the treatment of infections caused by these bacteria in the community and within hospitals. Expand
CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase arrives in the UK
TLDR
It is a concern that diagnostic laboratories will fail to recognize CTX-M-positive strains as ESBL producers, as it is common practice to screen for ceftazidime resistance as an indicator of ESBLs, on the grounds that it tends to be the best indicator substrate for TEM and SHV variants. Expand
CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Italy: Molecular Epidemiology of an Emerging Countrywide Problem
TLDR
The present results indicate that CTX-M-producing strains are now widespread across the Italian territory and underscore the emerging role of these ESBL determinants in the European setting. Expand
Nationwide spread of clonally related CTX-M-15-producing multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in Hungary
TLDR
To close the knowledge gap, the study presented here was initiated to characterize the nosocomial isolates of CTX-Mproducing Klebsiella spp. Expand
Epidemiological typing of klebsiellae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases from European intensive care units.
TLDR
The present study examined the extent to which this distribution reflected epidemic strain spread, as against the distribution of ESBL genes into unrelated strains, to imply a fluid situation, with resistance determinants being gained, modified or lost. Expand
Countrywide Spread of CTX-M-3 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Microorganisms of the Family Enterobacteriaceae in Poland
TLDR
Analysis of clinical isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae revealed a very high degree of diversity in β-lactam resistance levels and patterns, which was attributed to several factors, such as the production of other β- lactamases including additional ESBLs, possible quantitative variations in CTX-M-3 expression, segregation of AmpC derepressed mutants, and permeability alterations. Expand
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TLDR
ESBL frequency was lower than in 1998, and CTX-M-type frequency higher, and this long-term survey detected new sporadic enzymes and interhospital epidemic strains while avoiding any overestimation of ESBL frequency that may otherwise have occurred because of acute epidemics. Expand
Dissemination of CTX-M-Type β-Lactamases among Clinical Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in Paris, France
TLDR
These strains had a particular extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance profile characterized by a higher level of resistance to cefotaxime and aztreonam than to ceftazidime, and the blaCTX-M genes encoding these β-lactamases were involved in this resistance. Expand
Predominance and genetic diversity of community- and hospital-acquired CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in York, UK.
TLDR
ESBL-producing isolates were found in both the community and hospital, with the CTX-M type most common, and this is also the first report of an ESBL- producing Salmonella in the UK. Expand
CTX-M β-lactamase–producing Escherichia coli in Long-term Care Facilities, France
TLDR
The first documented outbreak of CTX-M–producing E. coli infection in a long-term care facility in France is reported, with patients screened for ESBL-producing strains showing resistance patterns not previously found in this hospital. Expand
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