CT based three-dimensional measurement of orbit and eye anthropometry.
PURPOSE To measure eye and orbit anthropometric variation within the normal population by using CT images and to determine the effects of age and sex on eye and orbit anthropometry. Quantification of eye and orbit anthropometric variation within the normal population and between persons of different age and sex is important in the prediction and prevention of eye injury. METHODS A systematic method was developed to align head CT images three dimensionally and to measure ocular and orbital parameters in 39 subjects. Twenty-four measurements were collected along the orbital rim, to quantify the orbital aperture. Protrusions of the brow and the eye were measured, along with relative distances, to describe location of the eye within the orbit. RESULTS The orbit widened with age, and significant relations were identified between orbital aperture and eye location measurements, both of which varied significantly between the sexes. CONCLUSIONS The comprehensive set of measurements collected in this study provides three-dimensional information on orbit geometry, as well as placement of the eye within the orbit. These measurements and the methodology used will contribute to the development of finite element models of the orbit and eye for computational modeling purposes and may be useful in the design of eye protection equipment.