We herein report the case of a 47-year-old female with the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) mutation p.G589R, which is related to hereditary leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroid (HDLS). The patient presented with an early-onset cognitive decline and progressive aphasia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed HDLS-related alterations. In addition, brain computed tomography revealed interspersed spotty calcifications in the frontal and parietal subcortical white matter, while a characteristic "stepping stone" appearance was observed in the frontal pericallosal regions. Our findings emphasize the importance of calcification appearances in establishing an HDLS diagnosis and in screening for CSF1R mutations.