CRISPR/Cas, the Immune System of Bacteria and Archaea

@article{Horvath2010CRISPRCasTI,
  title={CRISPR/Cas, the Immune System of Bacteria and Archaea},
  author={Philippe Horvath and Rodolphe Barrangou},
  journal={Science},
  year={2010},
  volume={327},
  pages={167 - 170}
}
CRISPR Defenses Prokaryotes can be infected by parasites and pathogens and, like eukaryotes, have evolved systems to protect themselves. Horvath and Barrangou (p. 167) review a recently discovered prokaryotic “immune system” characterized by CRISPR—clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats—found in most archaeal and many bacterial species. CRISPR loci harbor short sequences captured from viruses and invasive genetic elements. These sequences are transcribed, and the RNA is… Expand
CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria and archaea: versatile small RNAs for adaptive defense and regulation.
TLDR
Exciting breakthroughs in understanding the mechanisms of the CRISPR-Cas system and its potential for biotechnological applications and understanding evolutionary dynamics are discussed. Expand
CRISPRs in the Human Microbiome
The CRISPR–Cas adaptive immune system is an important defense system in bacteria, providing targeted defense against invasions of foreign nucleic acids, including phage and conjugative plasmidsExpand
Functions and Applications of RNA‐Guided CRISPR‐Cas Immune Systems
TLDR
The inheritable and hypervariable nature of these loci can be used to track the phylogenetic path of an organism and reveal the evolutionary interplay between hosts and their viruses. Expand
Mechanism and engineering of CRISPR-associated endonucleases
TLDR
It is revealed that Cas9 can be programmed to target single-stranded RNA substrates for both high-affinity binding and site- specific cleavage using PAM-presenting oligonucleotides and that RNA targeting by Cas9 has the potential to transform the study of RNA function, much as site-specific DNA targeting has revolutionized genetic and genomic research. Expand
CRISPR-Cas System: The Powerful Modulator of Accessory Genomes in Prokaryotes.
TLDR
The CRISPR-Cas system gained popularity after it was proposed as a tool for plant and animal embryo editing, in cancer therapy, as antimicrobial against pathogenic bacteria, and even for combating the novel coronavirus - SARS-CoV-2; thus, the newest and promising applications are reviewed. Expand
CRISPR‐Cas systems and RNA‐guided interference
  • R. Barrangou
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. RNA
  • 2013
TLDR
A number of studies have shown that CRISPR‐mediated immunity can readily increase the breadth and depth of virus resistance in bacteria and archaea and applications of crRNA‐guided interference are discussed. Expand
Viral Diversity Threshold for Adaptive Immunity in Prokaryotes
TLDR
A simple, testable viral diversity hypothesis to explain why mesophilic bacteria disproportionately lack CRISPR-Cas immunity is offered and fundamental limits on the adaptability of biological sensors (Lamarckian evolution) are predicted. Expand
Suppressing the CRISPR/Cas adaptive immune system in bacterial infections
TLDR
The results showed that the CRISPR/Cas system might prevent the emergence of virulence both in vitro and in vivo, and this system was shown to be a strong selective pressure for the acquisition of antibiotic resistance and virulence factor in bacterial pathogens. Expand
The CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system cleaves bacteriophage and plasmid DNA
TLDR
In vivo evidence is provided that the Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR1/Cas system can also naturally acquire spacers from a self-replicating plasmid containing an antibiotic-resistance gene, leading toplasmid loss. Expand
Genomic impact of CRISPR immunization against bacteriophages.
TLDR
The genome sequence of a BIM (bacteriophage-insensitive mutant) derived from the DGCC7710 model organism is determined, and it is determined that building CRISPR-encoded immunity does not significantly affect the genome, which allows the maintenance of important functional properties in isogenicCRISPR mutants. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 65 REFERENCES
CRISPR-based adaptive and heritable immunity in prokaryotes.
TLDR
Analysis of key Cas proteins indicate that, despite some functional analogies, this fascinating prokaryotic system shares no phylogenetic relation with the eukaryotic RNA interference system. Expand
Prokaryotic silencing (psi)RNAs in Pyrococcus furiosus.
TLDR
These results identify the principal products of the CRISPR loci as small psiRNAs comprised primarily of invader-targeting sequence with perhaps only 5-10 nucleotides ofCRISPR repeat sequence, which are the most abundant CRISpr RNA species in P. furiosus. Expand
Short motif sequences determine the targets of the prokaryotic CRISPR defence system.
TLDR
It is shown that the conservation of proto-spacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) is a common theme for the most diverse CRISPR systems, implying that there is aCRISPR-type-specific (motif-directed) choice of the spacers, which subsequently determines the interference target. Expand
Comparative analysis of CRISPR loci in lactic acid bacteria genomes.
TLDR
It is hypothesized that CRISPR loci have been subjected to horizontal gene transfer and further evolved independently in select lineages, in part due to selective pressure resulting from phage predation. Expand
Cas6 is an endoribonuclease that generates guide RNAs for invader defense in prokaryotes.
TLDR
This work has identified Pyrococcus furiosus Cas6 as a novel endoribonuclease that cleaves CRISPR RNAs within the repeat sequences to release individual invader targeting RNAs. Expand
Small CRISPR RNAs Guide Antiviral Defense in Prokaryotes
TLDR
The results demonstrate that the formation of mature guide RNAs by the CRISPR RNA endonuclease subunit of Cascade is a mechanistic requirement for antiviral defense. Expand
Analysis of CRISPR system function in plant pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae.
TLDR
This work determined CRISPR cassette sequences of two Xanthomonas oryzae strains and found that one of the strains remains sensitive to phage Xop411 despite carrying a cassette that has a spacer exactly matching a fragment of the Xop 411 genome. Expand
RNA-Guided RNA Cleavage by a CRISPR RNA-Cas Protein Complex
TLDR
The results indicate that prokaryotes possess a unique RNA silencing system that functions by homology-dependent cleavage of invader RNAs. Expand
Germ Warfare in a Microbial Mat Community: CRISPRs Provide Insights into the Co-Evolution of Host and Viral Genomes
TLDR
The ability of metagenomics to track population-level variation in viritope sequences allows for a culture-independent method for evaluating the fast co-evolution of host and viral genomes and its consequence on the structuring of complex microbial communities. Expand
A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, functional analogies with eukaryotic RNAi, and hypothetical mechanisms of action
TLDR
It appears most likely that CASS is a prokaryotic system of defense against phages and plasmids that functions via the RNAi mechanism, which seems to involve integration of fragments of foreign genes into archaeal and bacterial chromosomes yielding heritable immunity to the respective agents. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...