CR 2249: a New Putative Memory Enhancer. Behavioural Studies on Learning and Memory in Rats and Mice

  title={CR 2249: a New Putative Memory Enhancer. Behavioural Studies on Learning and Memory in Rats and Mice},
  author={Paolo Garofalo and Sergio L Colombo and Marco Lanza and Laura Revel and Francesco Makovec},
  journal={Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology},
The effects of S‐4‐amino‐5‐[4,4‐dimethylcyclohexyl)amino]‐5‐oxopentanoic acid (CR 2249), a new entity selected from a new series of glutamic acid derivatives, has been investigated in different paradigms for screening nootropics. 
Cognition Enhancing Profile of CR 2249, a New NMDA‐Glycine Site Modulator
Two different neurotransmission models are of major interest in understanding how the brain can acquire and store a single cognitive event: long-term potentiation and glutamatergic.
The "kynurenate test", a biochemical assay for putative cognition enhancers.
The "kynurenate test" is an in vitro assay useful in the identification and characterization of putative cognition enhancers acting via NMDA receptors and may bind to sites different from the glycine site of the NMDA receptor.
Activity of putative cognition enhancers in kynurenate test performed with human neocortex slices.
The similarities between the data obtained here with human neocortex slices and those previously obtained in the rat indicate that the kynurenate test performed with rat brain slices may represent a useful biochemical assay to study cognition-enhancing drugs.
Dopaminergic Control of Kynurenate Levels and N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Toxicity in the Developing Rat Striatum
Data suggest that KYNA plays a role as a mediator of dopamine-glutamate interactions in the rat striatum and the possible functional significance of the reduction in KYNA levels was tested.
The Potential Effect of Caffeine and Nicotine Co-administration againstAluminum-induced Alzheimer's disease in Rats
Co-administration of caffeine and nicotine can reduce the risk of neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus and attenuate the impairment of learning and memory associated with AD.
Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by post-weaning female rats isolation
Collectively female rats post weaning isolation had significantly prompted both behavioral and neurochemical changes which could represent the essential important symptoms of schizophrenia.
Study of the Anxiolytic Activity of Captopril Against the Anxiogenic Potential of Ciprofloxacin in Different Models of Anxiety in Rats
It could be concluded that the anxiolytic activity of captopril on rats predominates over the anxiogenic behavior of ciprofloxacin in mild and high stressful condition, and increases sensitivity to acute or electrically-evoked pain.


Involvement of biogenic amines in memory formation
Results indicate that normal levels of one of the catecholamines are necessary for the formation of long term memory, and drugs that deplete the biogenic amines of the central nervous system were found to impair the consolidation of memory.
GABA-ergic drugs: effects on conditioning, memory and learning.
Effects of Oxiracetam on Learning and Memory in Animals: Comparison with Piracetam
In the dose range examined, the two nootropics were equally active in reducing the amnesia induced by cerebral electroshock in the mouse and step-down retention performance, however, was distinctly improved by oxiracetam but unaffected by piracetam.
Effect of piracetam on electroshock induced amnesia and decrease in brain acetylcholine in rats.
The study indicates that the cognition enhancing effect of piracetam may be due to a facilitatory effect on cholinergic transmission.
Association between learning and cortical catecholamines in non-drug-treated rats
It is strongly indicated that cortical catecholamines facilitate learning in the normal non-drug-treated rat, as well as effects of brain lesions reported by other authors, strongly indicate that brain lesions facilitate learning.
Effects of cholinesterase inhibitors on learning and memory in rats: A brief review with special reference to THA
  • A. Mohammed
  • Biology, Psychology
    Acta neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum
  • 1993
THA has been found to improve performance in experimental animals with cognitive impairments induced by a variety of experimental manipulations such as by pharmacological blockade, cholinergic lesions, chronic alcohol or barbital treatment and ischemic lesion, which are compatible with the view that AChE inhibitors can be efficacious in “restoration” of someCholinergic functions.
Memory impairment induced by combined disturbance of noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmissions: effects of nootropic drugs.
The role of the noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems for the amnestic effect of the clonidine + haloperidol combination, as well as for the favourable effect on the cognitive functions of the tested nootropic drugs adafenoxate and p-p, is discussed.
Benzodiazepine impairs and β-carboline enhances performance in learning and memory tasks
It is reported here that an inverse agonist of the β-carboline group, methyl β- carboline-3-carboxylate (β-CCM), enhances animal performance in three different tasks used to investigate learning and memory.