COVID-19 and the small intestine

  title={COVID-19 and the small intestine},
  author={Sergei D. Bakharev and Elena V. Baulo and Svetlana V. Bykova and Saria R. Dbar and Asfold I. Parfenov},
  journal={Terapevticheskii Arkhiv},
The SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the body through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), which is the entry point of the virus into the cell The most dense fabric of ACE-2 is the lungs The small intestine also contains large amounts of ACE-2 in the enterocyte membrane and is often involved in this process Intestinal symptoms can appear at different stages of the disease The review describes the mechanisms of interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with enterocytes, the fecal-oral route of infection… 
5 Citations
Gastroenterological symptoms in COVID-19 patients with mild severity of the disease: opportunities to optimize antidiarrheal therapy
It was found that in patients of group I, the regression of clinical symptoms, the duration of viral disease, the dynamics of antibody formation, and the prognosis for the development of IBS-like disorders in the post-infectious period depended on the treatment.
Clinical aspects of diarrhea during the pandemia of COVID-19
Taking into account the massive course antibiotics’ side effects, the analysis of feces for pathogenic flora must be included into the medical examinations such as Clostridium difficile and the course of probiotic and anticlostridial medicines should be done.
Electrolyte concentration in blood serum as prognostic of severe course COVID-19
Harbingers of a sharp impairment in COVID-19 are an increase in the Na+/K+ ratio in the blood serum, a decrease of the of ionized Ca2+ concentration, a sharp increase in C-reactive protein concentration.
Clinical portrait of a patient with COVID-19. The experience of a multidisciplinary clinic
The data showed that patients with chronic diseases require a personalized approach and the development of specific criteria for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19.
Коррекция нарушений микробного состава кишечника как потенциальное звено в комплексной терапии пациентов с COVID-19
The paper presents studies of the prospects for the use of probiotics, synbiotics in the complex therapy of patients with COVID-19 and results of a recent study are presented showing that in patients with a mild course of COVID infection with respiratory and intestinal symptoms, the administration of Zakofalk for 30 days led to significantly faster stool normalization, persistent normalization of the frequency and consistency of stools by the 21st day.


Evidence for Gastrointestinal Infection of SARS-CoV-2
Evidence is provided for gastrointestinal infection of SARS-CoV-2, highlighting its potential fecal-oral transmission route and positive immunofluorescent staining of viral host receptor ACE2 and viral nucleocapsid protein in a case of Sars-Co V-2 infection.
Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Gastroenterologist’s Perspective in May 2020
Close monitoring of liver function and supportive care of COVID-19 patients are recommended, and GI procedures are high-risk procedures for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Faecal calprotectin indicates intestinal inflammation in COVID-19
This pilot study explored a relation between GI symptoms, intestinal inflammation (determined by FC) and faecal SARS-CoV-2-RNA in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 who did not require intensive care measures.
Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis
ACE2 is abundantly present in humans in the epithelia of the lung and small intestine, which might provide possible routes of entry for the SARS‐CoV.
A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus–induced lung injury
A molecular explanation why SARS-CoV infections cause severe and often lethal lung failure and suggest a rational therapy for SARS and possibly other respiratory disease viruses is provided.
Exploring the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): the tissue distribution of the coronavirus (SARS‐CoV) and its putative receptor, angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)
  • K. To, A. Lo
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of pathology
  • 2004
Studies of the tissue and cellular distribution of SARS‐CoV, and ACE2 protein expression, reveal new insights into the pathogenesis of this deadly disease, and a more rational approach to therapeutic and vaccine development can be designed in order to combat this new and fatal human disease.
Structural basis for the recognition of SARS-CoV-2 by full-length human ACE2
Cryo–electron microscopy structures of full-length human ACE2 in the presence of the neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 with or without the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the surface spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 are presented, providing important insights into the molecular basis for coronavirus recognition and infection.
Pharmacologic Treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review.
The COVID-19 pandemic represents the greatest global public health crisis of this generation and, potentially, since the pandemic influenza outbreak of 1918 and both the need and capability to produce high-quality evidence even in the middle of a pandemic.
SARS-CoV-2 induced diarrhoea as onset symptom in patient with COVID-19
It is concluded that patients with GIT symptoms should not be ignored for the virus infectivity, especially during the outbreak period, as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) beginning in Wuhan has rapidly spread around China and other countries.