COUNTERGRADIENT VARIATION AND SECONDARY SEXUAL COLOR: PHENOTYPIC CONVERGENCE PROMOTES GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN CAROTENOID USE BETWEEN SYMPATRIC ANADROMOUS AND NONANADROMOUS MORPHS OF SOCKEYE SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA)

@article{Craig2001COUNTERGRADIENTVA,
  title={COUNTERGRADIENT VARIATION AND SECONDARY SEXUAL COLOR: PHENOTYPIC CONVERGENCE PROMOTES GENETIC DIVERGENCE IN CAROTENOID USE BETWEEN SYMPATRIC ANADROMOUS AND NONANADROMOUS MORPHS OF SOCKEYE SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA)},
  author={Joseph Craig and Chris J. Foote},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={2001},
  volume={55}
}
Genetically distinct anadromous (sockeye) and nonanadromous (kokanee) morphs of the Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, develop identical, brilliant red color at maturity during sympatric breeding in freshwater streams. The marine and lacustrine environments they occupy prior to maturity, however, appear to differ in the availability of dietary carotenoid pigments necessary to produce red coloration. We tested the hypothesis that kokanee, which occupy carotenoid‐poor lakes, are more efficient… 
Countergradient variation in carotenoid use between sympatric morphs of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka ) exposes nonanadromous hybrids in the wild by their mismatched spawning colour
TLDR
This countergradient variation in carotenoid use results in a genotype-environment mismatch in nonanadromous hybrids that exposes them by their breeding colour on the spawning grounds, given that red colour is important in mate choice.
COUNTERGRADIENT VARIATION IN THE SEXUAL COLORATION OF GUPPIES (POECILIA RETICULATA): DROSOPTERIN SYNTHESIS BALANCES CAROTENOID AVAILABILITY
TLDR
Comparisons of pigmentation and coloration of guppies from six streams in the field to that of second‐generation descendants of the same populations raised on three dietary carotenoid levels in the laboratory show clearly that the geographic variation in drosopterin production is largely genetic and that the hue of the orange spots is conserved among populations in theField, relative to the laboratory diet groups.
COUNTERGRADIENT VARIATION IN THE SEXUAL COLORATION OF GUPPIES (POECILIA RETICULATA): DROSOPTERIN SYNTHESIS BALANCES CAROTENOID AVAILABILITY
TLDR
Compared the pigmentation and coloration of guppies from six streams in the field to that of second-generation descendants of the same populations raised on three dietary carotenoid levels in the laboratory, the results show clearly that the geographic variation in drosopterin production is largely genetic and that the hue of the orange spots is conserved among populations in theField, relative to the laboratory diet groups.
Carotenoid pigmentation in salmon: variation in expression at BCO2-l locus controls a key fitness trait affecting red coloration
TLDR
It is hypothesize that an ancestral mutation partially disrupting BCO2-l activity allowed the deposition and accumulation of carotenoids within Salmonidae, and the long-standing mystery of why salmon are red, while no other fishes are, is probably explained by a hypomorphic mutation in the proto-salmonid.
Red and white Chinook salmon: genetic divergence and mate choice
TLDR
The results suggest that selection is operating differentially at immune genes in red and white Chinook salmon, possibly due to differences in carotenoid utilization.
Significant differences in maternal carotenoid provisioning and effects on offspring fitness in Chinook salmon colour morphs
TLDR
This study supports a hypothesis that white Chinook salmon have evolved additional mechanisms to improve egg survival despite low carotenoids, providing novel insight into evolutionary mechanisms that maintain this stable polymorphism.
Post-spawning sexual selection in red and white Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)
TLDR
In this study, sperm velocity in water was a significant predictor of fertilization success, and post-spawning sexual selection processes represent important mechanisms contributing to the maintenance of the color polymorphism in nature.
Why are salmonids pink
TLDR
It is claimed that a basal carotenoid metabolism and a hormonally con- trolled targeted degradation of muscle tissue during maturation were established before the anadromous life style and that these proximal features were concomitantly exploited by natural selection in an ancestral anADromous and nest- making salmonid.
Species-Specific Relationships between Water Transparency and Male Coloration within and between Two Closely Related Lake Victoria Cichlid Species
TLDR
Spectrophotometry studied how male coloration within and between populations of two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid species (Pundamilia pundamilia and P. nyererei) covaries with water transparency to predict colours in clear waters should become more saturated and shift in hue away from the dominant ambient wavelengths, compared to more turbid waters.
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References

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EVIDENCE FOR SYMPATRIC GENETIC DIVERGENCE OF ANADROMOUS AND NONANADROMOUS MORPHS OF SOCKEYE SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS NERKA)
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  • Environmental Science
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
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TLDR
It is concluded that divergence has occurred in sympatry and potential isolating mechanisms are examined to confirm that sockeye and kokanee exist as reproductively isolated populations.
Genetic Differences in the Early Development and Growth of Sympatric Sockeye Salmon and Kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), and their Hybrids
TLDR
Pure and reciprocal crosses of Shuswap River sockeye and kokanee under controlled hatchery conditions raised to investigate whether genetic differences are maintained by selection against -hybrid" progeny.
Circannual Cycle of Seawater Adaptability in Oncorhynchus nerka: Genetic Differences between Sympatric Sockeye Salmon and Kokanee
TLDR
Sockeye were the first to show increased seawater adaptabilities, hybrid groups next, and kokanee last, and the observed differences could not be attributed to tank effects, or to differences in size, sex, or state of maturity.
Critical swimming velocities of juvenile sockeye salmon and kokanee, the anadromous and non‐anadromous forms of Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum)
TLDR
It is concluded that juvenile sockeye and kokanee have diverged with respect to sustained swimming performance and that reduced performance by kkanee may be due to relaxed selection for sustained swim performance associated with their non-anadromous life history.
The importance of carotenoids in signaling during aggressive interactions between male firemouth cichlids (Cichlasoma meeki)
TLDR
The experiments demonstrate that it is the effect of the diet on red pigmentation that is important rather than some confounding variable such as differential growth rates, and proposes that carotenoid pigmentation is likely to reflect a general quality, influenced by several factors, rather than a context-specific quality such as fighting ability.
Biochemical Genetic Comparison of Sockeye Salmon and Kokanee, the Anadromous and Nonanadromous forms of Oncorhynchus nerka
TLDR
Sympatric sockeye and kokanee were significantly different in all systems examined, demonstrating that genetic differences can persist in the absence of geographic barriers to gene flow.
Genotypic and Phenotypic Divergence of Sockeye Salmon in New Zealand from Their Ancestral British Columbia Populations
TLDR
Embryos of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka were transplanted from Shuswap Lake, British Columbia, to tributaries of Lake Ohau in the South Island of New Zealand in 1901, giving rise to a self-sustaining freshwater resident population that spawns primarily in Larch Stream north ofLake Ohau.
The effect of male coloration on female mate choice in closely related Lake Victoria cichlids (Haplochromis nyererei complex)
TLDR
Male coloration in haplochromine cichlids does underlie sexual selection by direct mate choice, involving the capacity for individual assessment of potential mates by the female, and may explain rapid speciation by sexual selection on male coloration.
Sex-linked heritability of a sexually selected character in a natural population of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae) (guppies)
TLDR
The high heritability of orange area suggests that this trait is probably not an indicator of fitness variation as postulated by some ‘good genes’ models for the evolution of female mate choice but that it does have the potential for further evolutionary change and elaboration.
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