author={Nigel P. Field and Beryl Gao and Lisa Paderna},
  journal={Death Studies},
  pages={277 - 299}
ABSTRACT An attachment theory based perspective on the continuing bond to the deceased (CB) is proposed. The value of attachment theory in specifying the normative course of CB expression and in identifying adaptive versus maladaptive variants of CB expression based on their deviation from this normative course is outlined. The role of individual differences in attachment security on effective versus ineffective use of CB in coping with bereavement also is addressed. Finally, the moderating… 
Attachment Security and Continuing Bonds: The Mediating Role of Meaning-Made in Bereavement
Abstract Attachment security plays an important function in the grieving process. This study aimed to explore how individual differences in attachment security and meaning-made predict continuing
Unresolved Grief and Continuing Bonds: An Attachment Perspective
An important linkage is identified between a prominent indicator of unresolved loss that involves a lapse in the monitoring of reasoning implying disbelief that the person is dead and the clinical writings of J. Bowlby (1980) and V. Volkan (1981) on maladaptive variants of CB expression.
Continuing bonds in adjustment to bereavement: Impact of abrupt versus gradual separation
There is debate whether continuing bonds with a deceased person help or hinder adaptation to bereavement. This longitudinal study examined causal relationships between continuing bonds and symptoms
Continuing bonds in adaptation to bereavement: Toward theoretical integration.
Internalized and Externalized Continuing Bonds in Bereaved Parents: Their Relationship with Grief Intensity and Personal Growth
Structural equation modeling showed clear links between internalized bonds and a more positive grief status; externalized bonds showing an opposite relationship.
Continuing Bonds and Psychosocial Adjustment in Pet Loss
This study investigated continuing bonds (CB) expressions among bereaved pet owners and the relationship between CB expressions and psychosocial adjustment. The sample included 33 participants who
Attitudes Towards Continuing Bonds, Attachment Vulnerability, and the Moderating Effects of Gender
This correlational study involved a student sample. Factor analysis yielded two continuing bond attitude components: the view that maintaining an emotional connection with the memory of the deceased
Continuing Bonds After Suicide Bereavement in Childhood
A qualitative study was conducted to explore one aspect of the grieving process—continuing bonds—after suicide bereavement in childhood, and highlights potentially unique qualities of continuing bonds after childhood suicide Bereavement and factors that might influence their adaptiveness.
Attachment Anxiety and Avoidance in Coping with Bereavement: Two Studies
Although attachment theory has become one of the primary paradigms for understanding bereavement adaptation, there has been surprisingly little empirical work on this topic. Two studies investigated


The relation of continuing attachment to adjustment in conjugal bereavement.
The results suggest that whether continuing attachment is adaptive or not depends on its form, and that attachment through fond memories was related to less distress in the role-play and predictive to less of a decrease in grief-specific symptoms over time in a growth curve analysis.
Continuing bonds and adjustment at 5 years after the death of a spouse.
Higher CBS scores were associated with a more elevated grief-specific symptom pattern over the 5-year postloss period, and those who expressed greater helplessness and less blame toward the deceased during a monologue role-play involving their deceased spouse at 6 months postloss had higher CBS scores.
Attachment Style in Adjustment to Conjugal Bereavement
This study examined the role of attachment style in adjustment to bereavement. Midlife bereaved individuals whose spouse had died in the previous year completed the Reciprocal Attachment
It was hypothesized that CB would be effective as a way of coping in mood regulation, but that its effectiveness would be moderated by time since the death, and a positive within-person relationship was found between CB coping and positive mood for the later- bereaved group, but not for early-bereaved widows.
Solace and immortality: bereaved parents' continuing bond with their children
Abstract How do bereaved parents find solace in the face of irreparable loss? The essay grows out of a 10-year ethnographic study of a chapter of the Compassionate Friends, a self-help group. A
Broken hearts or broken bonds. Love and death in historical perspective.
In light of contemporary variations in subcultural meanings and values, a postmodern view is suggested in which reflexive responsibility is focal.
Patterns of Relating: An Adult Attachment Perspective
Introduction. The Definition of Adult Reciprocal Attachment. The Relevance of Adult Reciprocal Attachment. Developmental Perspectives. Working Models. Patterns of Insecure Attachment. Defensive
Attachment formation and transfer in young adults’close friendships and romantic relationships
Two hundred thirty-seven young adults from an American university completed a questionnaire designed to test several normative implications of attachment theory. As predicted, the majority of
Mourning and Meaning
Viewed in an expanded frame, the phenomena of grief and bereavement call for analysis in sociological, psychological, and psychiatric terms. In this article, the authors argue that a common theme in
The dual process model of coping with bereavement: rationale and description.
A revised model of coping with bereavement, the dual process model, is proposed, which argues the need for dosage of grieving, that is, the need to take respite from dealing with either of these stressors, as an integral part of adaptive coping.