author={Tatsuo Motokawa},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  • T. Motokawa
  • Published 1 May 1984
  • Biology
  • Biological Reviews
(1) Catch connective tissue is defined as the collagenous connective tissue whose mechanical properties can be changed rapidly (in seconds or minutes) under nervous control. 
New insights into mutable collagenous tissues: an inspiring model for tissue regeneration
Tese de mestrado integrado. Engenharia Biomedica. Universidade do Porto. Faculdade de Engenharia. 2010
New insights into the mutable collagenous tissue of Paracentrotus lividus : preliminary results*
The preliminary results of a detailed analysis of MCT components in the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus are presented, focusing on biochemical characterization of the fibrils and biomolecular analysis of the presumptive glycoproteins involved.
The echinoderm collagen fibril: a hero in the connective tissue research of the 1990s
  • G. Szulgit
  • Biology, Medicine
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2007
Information will be fundamental in understanding what holds collagenous tissues together at the fibrillar level, and could have important implications for people with Ehlers‐Danlos syndrome.
Biochemical characterization of fibrillar collagen from the mutable spine ligament of the sea-urchin Eucidaris tribuloides
Collagen was extracted by pepsin-digestion of the spine ligaments of the sea-urchin Eucidaris tribuloides based on its α-chain composition and solubility characteristics and formed SLS-crystallites and native-banded fibrils under appropriate conditions.
Matrix Metalloproteinases in a Sea Urchin Ligament with Adaptable Mechanical Properties
Evidence is provided that MMPs may contribute to the variable tensility of the CDLs, in the light of which an updated hypothesis for the regulatory mechanism controlling MCT mutability is provided.
Advancement mechanics of growing teeth in sand dollars (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) : a role for mutable collagenous tissue
  • O. Ellers, M. Telford
  • Materials Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1996
Regulation of growth involves the integration of several body systems including nerves, muscles and connective tissues. We demonstrate how changes in material properties of a connective tissue permit
Correlations Between the Biochemistry and Mechanical States of a Sea-Urchin Ligament: A Mutable Collagenous Structure
CDL mutability seems to involve a molecular rearrangement of the ECM, without synthesis of new ECM components, as well as sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and subtle adjustments in tissue hydration seemed to occur, particularly during stiffening.
Dynamic mechanical characterization of a mutable collagenous tissue: response of sea cucumber dermis to cell lysis and dermal extracts.
It is concluded that changes in the mechanical state of the tissue involve interactions between elastic elements within the tissue rather than an alteration of its viscous components.
Stiparin: a glycoprotein from sea cucumber dermis that aggregates collagen fibrils.
The interactions between collagen fibrils in many echinoderm connective tissues are rapidly altered by the secretions of resident neurosecretory cells. Recent evidence has suggested that a secreted
The attachment of collagenous ligament to stereom in primary spines of the sea-urchin, Eucidaris tribuloides.
The similar proximal and distal attachments to the stereom of primary spine ligament in the echinoid Eucidaris tribuloides are described, from thin sections and SEM studies on frozen and fractured


Rapid change in mechanical properties of echinoderm connective tissues caused by coelomic fluid
Abstract 1. Connective tissues of the joint ligaments of spines of sea urchin Diadema setosum and starfish Acanthaster planci changed mechanical properties rapidly and reversibly in response to the
Nervously mediated change in the mechanical properties of a brittlestar ligament
In common with a number of other echinoderm collagenous structures, the intervertebral ligament of Ophicomina nigra behaves like a viscous fluid when stressed by a constant load. Behaviour under
The collagenous nature of problematical ligaments in crinoids (Echinodermata)
Light and electron microscopic work shows that the crinoid ligaments may provide the needed rigidity to the crInoid skeleton, in a manner similar to that by which the echinoid catch apparatus can hold the spine tightly to the test in one position.
Connective Tissue Mechanics of Metridium Senile
1. The mechanical properties of the mesogloea of the sea anemone Metridium senile were investigated. An amorphous polymer network in the matrix was found to play a major role in determining the
Factors Regulating the Mechanical Properties of Holothurian Dermis
chemical stimulation of the dermis with coelomic fluid of the sea cucumber, or with artificial sea water containing a high concentration of potassium, increased both the elastic stiffness and the viscosity and affected the mechanical properties of other echinoderm connective tissue in a similar way to the holothurian dermis.
Nervously mediated change in the mechanical properties of the cirral ligaments of a crinoid
The cirri of crinoid echinoderms are jointed appendages which show variable rigidity but lack muscles. The cirral joints are subtended by collagenous ligaments which determine the passive mechanical
The pharyngeal retractor muscles of Thyone briareus autotomize during evisceration at the junction of the PRM and LBWM, which induces autotomy of isolated PRMs.
Fine Structure and Mechanical Properties of the Catch Apparatus of the Sea-Urchin Spine, a Collagenous Connective Tissue with Muscle-Like Holding Capacity
The catch apparatus (CA) of the sea-urchin spine has been known to have a muscle-like holding property, though it is composed mainly of extracellular collagen fibres. An electron microscopic study
Ion-dependent Viscosity of Holothurian Body Wall and its Implications for the Functional Morphology of Echinoderms
Dermis from the holothurian Thyone inermis was subjected to constant load and its rate of plastic deformation (creep) was used to calculate tissue viscosity. During these tests the material was
The stiffness change of the holothurian dermis caused by chemical and electrical stimulation.
  • T. Motokawa
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. C: Comparative pharmacology
  • 1981
The dermis responded (stiffened) to some chemicals: acetylcholine, high potassium seawater, a factor in coelomic fluid of sea cucumbers, and the homogenate of the dermis ofSea cucumbers.