author={P. Senter},
Abstract Fossils and casts of forelimb bones of the dromaeosaurids Deinonychus antirrhopus and Bambiraptor feinbergi were manually manipulated to determine range of motion and to test functional hypotheses. Shoulder motion in Bambiraptor resembles that found by a previous study on Deinonychus. The humerus can be retracted and elevated to subhorizontal positions and protracted somewhat beyond the vertical. In both taxa, the elbow can be strongly flexed but cannot be fully extended. Supination… 

Forelimbs of the theropod dinosaur Dilophosaurus wetherilli: Range of motion, influence of paleopathology and soft tissues, and description of a distal carpal bone

Experiments on American alligator cadavers show that ROM exhibits limited intraspecific variation and is greater in the fullyfleshed elbow than skeletal manipulation suggests, and this work adjusts the results of the bare-bones manipulations to account for the known influence of soft tissues.

Forearm Range of Motion in Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda, Megaraptoridae)

range of motion analysis neither confirms nor refutes current phylogenetic hypotheses with regards to the placement of Megaraptoridae; however, it is noted Australovenator possessed, not only a similar forearm range of motion to some maniraptorans and basal coelurosaurs, but also similarities with Tetanurans (Allosauroids and Dilophosaurus).

The role of the forelimb in prey capture in the Late Triassic reptile Megalancosaurus (Diapsida, Drepanosauromorpha)

The new functional interpretation fits well with the overall body architecture of Megalancosaurus’ skeleton, suggesting that this reptile was an ambush predator that may have assumed a stable tripodal position, secured by the hooked tail and hind limbs, freeing its forelimbs to catch prey by sudden extension of the arm and firm grasping with the pincer-like digits.

Forelimb musculature and function in the therizinosaur Nothronychus (Maniraptora, Theropoda)

  • David K Smith
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Journal of anatomy
  • 2021
The muscular anatomy of the pectoral girdle and forelimb of Nothronychus is reconstructed using visible muscle scars, data from extant birds and crocodilians, and models for other theropods, and results were quite similar to those inferred for dromaeosaurs.

Craniocervical Myology and Functional Morphology of the Small-Headed Therizinosaurian Theropods Falcarius utahensis and Nothronychus mckinleyi

The craniocervical musculature in bothTherizinosaurs represent a highly unusual clade of herbivorous theropods from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia and is reconstructed using Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus, and some extant birds as models.

An examination of forearm bone mobility in Alligator mississippiensis (Daudin, 1802) and Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758 reveals that Archaeopteryx and dromaeosaurs shared an adaptation for gliding and/or flapping

A functional analysis of forearm bone mobility in extant archosaurs shows that crossing and uncrossing of the radius and ulna can be forced in alligators via a passive gliding mechanism recently described in lacertilians, while birds are adapted to inhibit this motion.

Forelimb Posture in Chilesaurus diegosuarezi (Dinosauria, Theropoda) and Its Behavioral and Phylogenetic Implications

The arrangement of the forelimb bones in Chilesaurus could show the first evidences of the structures linked to the muscles that flex the forearms, features related with the acquisition of flying control in advanced maniraptorans.

The asymmetry of the carpal joint and the evolution of wing folding in maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs

The radiale angle was small in primitive coelurosaurs but considerably larger in primitive maniraptorans, indicating that the radiale was more wedge-shaped and the carpal joint more asymmetric, an early advantage of the flexible, asymmetric wrist inherited by birds.

Wing osteology, myology, and function of Rhea americana (Aves, Rheidae)

The use of the Greater Rhea is highlighted as a model, which may help understand the evolution of Palaeognathae, as well as the origin of flapping flight among paravian theropods.

Analysis of forelimb function in basal ceratopsians

Forelimb morphology and range of motion indicate that Psittacosaurus was an obligate biped and that Leptoceratops and Protocer atops were capable of quadrupedal locomotion, as well as testing the predictions of several hypotheses of forelimb function.



Function in the stunted forelimbs of Mononykus olecranus (Theropoda), a dinosaurian anteater

The results of this study confirm that the forelimbs of Mononykus could not have been used to grasp prey or dig burrows, but were well suited for scratch-digging or hook-and-pull movements such as are used by extant anteaters and pangolins to open tough insect nests.

Forelimb biomechanics of nonavian theropod dinosaurs in predation

Theoretical models of theropod forelimb biomechanics are often tainted with preconceived ideas. Actualistic modeling using specimens and casts, coupled with CAT-scans and dissections of extant

Anatomy of the primitive bird Sapeornis chaoyangensis from the Early Cretaceous of Liaoning, China

Two new, nearly completely articulated skeletons of Sapeornis chaoyangensis provide much new information about the anatomy of this basal avian, particularly in the skull, pectoral girdle, forelimb,

An oviraptorid skeleton from the late Cretaceous of Ukhaa Tolgod, Mongolia, preserved in an avianlike brooding position over an oviraptorid nest. American Museum novitates ; no. 3265

The articulated postcranial skeleton of an oviraptorid dinosaur (Theropoda, Coelurosauria) from the Late Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation of Ukhaa Tolgod, Mongolia, is preserved overlying a nest. The

New evidence concerning avian origins from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia

A theropod dinosaur from Patagonia is described, Unenlagia comahuensis gen. et sp.

A large Compsognathid from the early cretaceous Yixian formation of China

A new, large compsognathid theropod from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation deposits of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China is described and the phylogenetic position of Huaxiagnathus orientalis fell out at the base of the Compso‐gnathidae, as it lacks the forelimb adaptations of more derived comps Cognathids.

Scapular orientation in theropods and basal birds, and the origin of flapping flight

It is shown that shoulder joint orientation in basal birds prevented elevation of the humerus above the dorsum, thereby preventing use of the recovery stroke, an important part of flapping flight.

Important Features of the Dromaeosaurid Skeleton II : Information from Newly Collected Specimens of Velociraptor mongoliensis

This description concentrates on poorly known aspects of the skeleton of Velociraptor mongoliensis, including several features that are extremely similar to characters found in basal avialans like Archaeopteryx lithographica.

The phylogenetic position of the Tyrannosauridae: implications for theropod systematics

  • T. Holtz
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Journal of Paleontology
  • 1994
The inclusion of the Tyrannosauridae within Maniraptora suggests a major adaptive radiation of coelurosaurs within Cretaceous Asiamerica comparable to contemporaneous radiations in various herbivorous dinosaurian clades.

Feathered Dinosaurs and the Origin of Flight

The fossils of Liaoning represent a complex ecosystem creating a more complete picture of this particular age of dinosaurs than ever before. Life of the Early Cretaceous, 120 million years ago, was