author={P. Senter},
Abstract Fossils and casts of forelimb bones of the dromaeosaurids Deinonychus antirrhopus and Bambiraptor feinbergi were manually manipulated to determine range of motion and to test functional hypotheses. Shoulder motion in Bambiraptor resembles that found by a previous study on Deinonychus. The humerus can be retracted and elevated to subhorizontal positions and protracted somewhat beyond the vertical. In both taxa, the elbow can be strongly flexed but cannot be fully extended. Supination… 

Forelimbs of the theropod dinosaur Dilophosaurus wetherilli: Range of motion, influence of paleopathology and soft tissues, and description of a distal carpal bone

Experiments on American alligator cadavers show that ROM exhibits limited intraspecific variation and is greater in the fullyfleshed elbow than skeletal manipulation suggests, and this work adjusts the results of the bare-bones manipulations to account for the known influence of soft tissues.

Forearm Range of Motion in Australovenator wintonensis (Theropoda, Megaraptoridae)

range of motion analysis neither confirms nor refutes current phylogenetic hypotheses with regards to the placement of Megaraptoridae; however, it is noted Australovenator possessed, not only a similar forearm range of motion to some maniraptorans and basal coelurosaurs, but also similarities with Tetanurans (Allosauroids and Dilophosaurus).

The role of the forelimb in prey capture in the Late Triassic reptile Megalancosaurus (Diapsida, Drepanosauromorpha)

The new functional interpretation fits well with the overall body architecture of Megalancosaurus’ skeleton, suggesting that this reptile was an ambush predator that may have assumed a stable tripodal position, secured by the hooked tail and hind limbs, freeing its forelimbs to catch prey by sudden extension of the arm and firm grasping with the pincer-like digits.

Craniocervical Myology and Functional Morphology of the Small-Headed Therizinosaurian Theropods Falcarius utahensis and Nothronychus mckinleyi

The craniocervical musculature in bothTherizinosaurs represent a highly unusual clade of herbivorous theropods from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia and is reconstructed using Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus, and some extant birds as models.

An examination of forearm bone mobility in Alligator mississippiensis (Daudin, 1802) and Struthio camelus Linnaeus, 1758 reveals that Archaeopteryx and dromaeosaurs shared an adaptation for gliding and/or flapping

A functional analysis of forearm bone mobility in extant archosaurs shows that crossing and uncrossing of the radius and ulna can be forced in alligators via a passive gliding mechanism recently described in lacertilians, while birds are adapted to inhibit this motion.

Forelimb Posture in Chilesaurus diegosuarezi (Dinosauria, Theropoda) and Its Behavioral and Phylogenetic Implications

The arrangement of the forelimb bones in Chilesaurus could show the first evidences of the structures linked to the muscles that flex the forearms, features related with the acquisition of flying control in advanced maniraptorans.

CAD assessment of the posture and range of motion of Kentrosaurus aethiopicus Hennig 1915

A computer aided design analysis using high-resolution laser scans of the bones of the stegosaur Kentrosaurus aethiopicus Hennig1915 from the Late Jurassic Tendaguru Formation indicates that in the

Resting Orientations of Dinosaur Scapulae and Forelimbs: A Numerical Analysis, with Implications for Reconstructions and Museum Mounts

It is found that in bipedal dinosaurs other than theropods with semilunate carpals, the resting orientation of the elbow is close to a right angle and the resting orientations of the wrist is such that the hand exhibits only slight ulnar deviation from the antebrachium.

Evidence for a Sauropod-Like Metacarpal Configuration in Ankylosaurian Dinosaurs

Ankylosaurian dinosaurs are armored, quadrupedal members of the ornithischian clade Thyreophora. Ankylosaurs are typically portrayed with the metacarpals slanted and distally divergent, with their

Evidence for a Sauropod-Like Metacarpal Configuration in Stegosaurian Dinosaurs

Manual manipulation of stegosaurian metacarpals reveals that in that configuration they do not articulate with each other nor with the rest of the forelimb, but when posed vertically and arranged in a compact, semi-tubular configuration, as in sauropods this configuration agrees with data from articulated specimens and trackways.



Range of motion in the forelimb of the theropod dinosaur Acrocanthosaurus atokensis , and implications for predatory behaviour

Casts of forelimb elements of the Cretaceous theropod dinosaur Acrocanthosaurus atokensis were manually manipulated to determine range of motion and infer function. It was found that the humerus can

Function in the stunted forelimbs of Mononykus olecranus (Theropoda), a dinosaurian anteater

The results of this study confirm that the forelimbs of Mononykus could not have been used to grasp prey or dig burrows, but were well suited for scratch-digging or hook-and-pull movements such as are used by extant anteaters and pangolins to open tough insect nests.

Forelimb biomechanics of nonavian theropod dinosaurs in predation

Theoretical models of theropod forelimb biomechanics are often tainted with preconceived ideas. Actualistic modeling using specimens and casts, coupled with CAT-scans and dissections of extant

Anatomy of the primitive bird Sapeornis chaoyangensis from the Early Cretaceous of Liaoning, China

Two new, nearly completely articulated skeletons of Sapeornis chaoyangensis provide much new information about the anatomy of this basal avian, particularly in the skull, pectoral girdle, forelimb,

An oviraptorid skeleton from the late Cretaceous of Ukhaa Tolgod, Mongolia, preserved in an avianlike brooding position over an oviraptorid nest. American Museum novitates ; no. 3265

The articulated postcranial skeleton of an oviraptorid dinosaur (Theropoda, Coelurosauria) from the Late Cretaceous Djadokhta Formation of Ukhaa Tolgod, Mongolia, is preserved overlying a nest. The

A large Compsognathid from the early cretaceous Yixian formation of China

A new, large compsognathid theropod from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation deposits of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China is described and the phylogenetic position of Huaxiagnathus orientalis fell out at the base of the Compso‐gnathidae, as it lacks the forelimb adaptations of more derived comps Cognathids.

Scapular orientation in theropods and basal birds, and the origin of flapping flight

It is shown that shoulder joint orientation in basal birds prevented elevation of the humerus above the dorsum, thereby preventing use of the recovery stroke, an important part of flapping flight.

Important Features of the Dromaeosaurid Skeleton II : Information from Newly Collected Specimens of Velociraptor mongoliensis

This description concentrates on poorly known aspects of the skeleton of Velociraptor mongoliensis, including several features that are extremely similar to characters found in basal avialans like Archaeopteryx lithographica.

The phylogenetic position of the Tyrannosauridae: implications for theropod systematics

  • T. Holtz
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Journal of Paleontology
  • 1994
The inclusion of the Tyrannosauridae within Maniraptora suggests a major adaptive radiation of coelurosaurs within Cretaceous Asiamerica comparable to contemporaneous radiations in various herbivorous dinosaurian clades.

Feathered Dinosaurs and the Origin of Flight

The fossils of Liaoning represent a complex ecosystem creating a more complete picture of this particular age of dinosaurs than ever before. Life of the Early Cretaceous, 120 million years ago, was