CO2 concentrating mechanisms in algae: mechanisms, environmental modulation, and evolution.

  title={CO2 concentrating mechanisms in algae: mechanisms, environmental modulation, and evolution.},
  author={Mario Giordano and John Beardall and John A. Raven},
  journal={Annual review of plant biology},
The evolution of organisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis paralleled a long-term reduction in atmospheric CO2 and the increase in O2. Consequently, the competition between O2 and CO2 for the active sites of RUBISCO became more and more restrictive to the rate of photosynthesis. In coping with this situation, many algae and some higher plants acquired mechanisms that use energy to increase the CO2 concentrations (CO2 concentrating mechanisms, CCMs) in the proximity of RUBISCO. A number of… 

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