CO-EVOLUTION OF FIGS AND THEIR INSECT POLLINATORS

@article{Wiebes1979COEVOLUTIONOF,
  title={CO-EVOLUTION OF FIGS AND THEIR INSECT POLLINATORS},
  author={J. T. Wiebes},
  journal={Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics},
  year={1979},
  volume={10},
  pages={1-12}
}
  • J. Wiebes
  • Published 28 October 1979
  • Biology
  • Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics
For the pollination of their flowers, figs (Ficus spp., Moraceae) are dependent upon Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea of the family Agaonidae (fig wasps). For the propagation of their kind, the fig wasps are dependent upon the ovaries of the figs, in which their larvae develop. Thus, the figs and fig wasps are interdependent; generally, their relation is strictly specific-i.e. every species of fig has its own species of pollinator wasp (21, 25, 28). For historical data on the development of our… 
Seed and wasp production in the mutualism of figs and fig wasps
TLDR
Bagged experiment showed that the sampling fig species was not self-sterile which was important for figs and wasps to survive bad season and Seed production in self-pollinated figs was not significantly different from total wasps including non-pollinating ones.
Responses of fig wasps to host plant volatile cues
TLDR
Using fig-bearing trees and arrays of sticky traps baited with figs, this work investigated the specificity of wasp attraction and its timing and found the pollinators of two closely related fig species were specifically attracted to figs of their host species and only at the time when figs were ready to be pollinated.
Coevolution of reproductive characteristics in 12 species of New World figs and their pollinator wasps
TLDR
Data from 12 monoecious species of New World figs and their wasp pollinators indicate that fig fruit size, wasp size, and the number of foundresses that pollinate and lay eggs in any given fruit interact in complex but systematic ways to affect the reproductive success of both the wasps and the figs.
Fig volatiles: Their role in attracting pollinators and maintaining pollinator specificity
TLDR
Gas chromatograms of the fig volatiles of 7 species of Ficus showed them to be species specific, and age related changes in the volatile profiles were noted as extra volatile are produced when the figs were ready for pollination.
Variation in reproductive success of gynodioecious figs ( Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their pollinators (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) in New Guinea
TLDR
Results suggest that fig and wasp reproductive success is positively related in gynodioecious species, and the ecological significance of fig reproductive output to tropical rain forests is discussed.
Phenology and Pollination Ecology of Three Brazilian Fig Species (Moraceae)
TLDR
All three species follow the general pattern of pollination known for figs, but the behavior of the pollinator wasps, Pegoscapus spp.
The population dynamics of a non-pollinating fig wasp on Ficus auriculata at Xishuangbanna, China
All fig wasps are confined to figs as larvae, and their specialized diets are restricted to fig embryos, galled fig ovaries or other fig wasp larvae (Boucek 1988). Almost all of the ∼800 Ficus
Dispersal of adult female fig wasps: 2. Movements between trees
TLDR
The movements of fig wasps between trees was investigated using sticky traps placed around fig trees or near cotton bags containing figs, and the densities of flying wasps at different heights was determined.
The naturalisation of banyan figs (Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) in New Zealand
TLDR
The size and vigour of both figs and their lack of natural enemies indicate that they may be able to invade forest and other native plant communities.
Ficus (Moraceae) and Hymenoptera (Chalcidoidea): Figs and their pollinators
TLDR
It seems from the botanical side that the evolution of Ficus into subgenera and sections preceded that of its insects into genera, and there are no grounds for reclassification of Ficua, but leaf structure indicates that some rearrangement of the species of subgen.
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References

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HOST SPECIFICITY OF FIG WASPS (AGAONIDAE).
TLDR
The evidence concerning the degree of host specificity of fig wasps is evaluated and the evidence concerning such specificity and its occasional breakdown is evaluated.
POLLEN TRANSFER AND POLLINATION IN THE COMMON FIG (FICUS CARICA L.)
TLDR
The process is now shown to entail loading of pollen in the polleniferous fig into intersegmental and pleural invaginations which form in the shrunken body of the wasp following water loss.
Fig wasps: mechanism of pollen transfer.
TLDR
The fig (Ficus) is absolutely dependent upon pollination by minute agaonid wasps for development of fertile seeds and the New World Tetrapus and some Old World Blastophaga lack pollen-carrying structures and may carry pollen dusted over the body or in the digestive tract.
FURTHER STUDIES ON POLLINATION ECOLOGY IN FICUS SYCOMORUS II. POCKET FILLING AND EMPTYING BY CERATOSOLEN ARABICUS MAYR
TLDR
It is concluded that the size of the cavity is a critical factor in the behaviour of the wasps in the fig of F. sycomorus and the possible role of light for pocket filling in the subdued illumination of the intact fig cavity is discussed.
Urticales, Their Differentiation and Systematic Position
The Urticales constitute a group of plants with surprising diversity and confusing complexity, especially in the Moraceae round which family the present paper is centred. Main trends in the
A New Classification of Ficus
TLDR
The object of this study is to group the taxa of Ficus into related groups considering the specificity and morphology of their symbiotic agaonids, the different systems of pollination, as well as the morphology and physiology of the figs.
CARBON DIOXIDE AND ETHYLENE EFFECTS IN THE CO‐ORDINATION BETWEEN THE POLLINATOR BLASTOPHAGA QUADRATICEPS AND THE SYCONIUM IN FICUS RELIGIOSA
TLDR
The differential response of male and female wasps to the changes in the composition of the internal atmosphere within the fig ensures the completion of the developmental cycle of both the pollinator and the fig.
Provisional host catalogue of Fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)
TLDR
The Chalcidoidea of the family Torymidae, subfamily Sycophaginae, and most of the other inquilines, should be thoroughly revised before a critical list of their host preferences can be presented.
Fig wasps from Israeli ficus Sycomorus and related East African species (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) 2. Agaonidae (concluded) and Sycophagini
The study of many new samples of fig wasps collected in Africa by Dr. J. Galil of Tel-Aviv University, Israel, revealed the unexpected fact that Ceratosolen arabicus Mayr and C. galili Wiebes develop
Indo-malayan and Papuan fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) : 2. The genus Pleistodontes Saunders (Agaonidae)
TLDR
Until now, the genus Pleistodontes Saunders is known from the Australian continent and from Lord Howe Island, but two species were introduced into the Hawaiian Islands and the type species of the genus is redescribed.
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