CHRONIC UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE OF FREE-RANGING DESERT TORTOISES (XEROBATES AGASSIZII)

@inproceedings{Jacobson1991CHRONICUR,
  title={CHRONIC UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE OF FREE-RANGING DESERT TORTOISES (XEROBATES AGASSIZII)},
  author={Elliott R. Jacobson and Jack M. Gaskin and M. B. Brown and R. Keith Harris and Christopher Gardiner and J L LaPointe and Henry P. Adams and Carlos Reggiardo},
  booktitle={Journal of wildlife diseases},
  year={1991}
}
Seventeen desert tortoises, Xerobates agassizii, with upper respiratory tract disease were examined; thirteen were euthanatized for necropsy. Four normal control desert tortoises from a clinically healthy population were similarly evaluated. Hemoglobin and phosphorus values were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower and serum sodium, urea, SGOT, and cholesterol values were significantly higher in ill tortoises compared to controls. No significant differences in concentrations of serum or liver… 
UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE AND MYCOPLASMOSIS IN DESERT TORTOISES FROM NEVADA
TLDR
A population of desert tortoises at Yucca Mountain was monitored during four sampling periods using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to determine the percentage of individuals that had been exposed to Mycoplasma agassizii, a causative agent of upper respiratory tract disease.
OXALOSIS IN WILD DESERT TORTOISES, GOPHERUS AGASSIZII
TLDR
Moderate numbers of birefringent oxalate crystals, based on infrared and electron microscopy, were present within renal tubules; small numbers were seen in colloid within thyroid follicles; and the source of the calcium oxalates could not be determined, but a plant origin seems most likely.
Upper Respiratory Tract Disease in the Gopher Tortoise Is Caused by Mycoplasma agassizii
TLDR
It is concluded that M. agassizii is an etiologic agent of URTD in the gopher tortoise and Histological lesions were compatible with those observed in tortoises with natural infections.
PATHOLOGY OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE OF GOPHER TORTOISES IN FLORIDA
TLDR
Histologic evaluation of the upper respiratory tract indicated the presence of mild to severe inflammatory, hyperplastic, or dysplastic changes in 14 URTD-positive tortoises, and it is concluded that subclinical U RTD can occur in gopher tortoise.
EFFECTS OF MYCOPLASMAL UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE ON MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY OF GOPHER TORTOISES IN NORTHERN AND CENTRAL FLORIDA
TLDR
Mycoplasmal URTD is believed to be a chronic disease with high morbidity but low mortality, and follow-up studies are needed to detect long-term effects.
Mycoplasma agassizii causes upper respiratory tract disease in the desert tortoise
TLDR
It is concluded that M. agassizii is an etiologic agent of URTD in the desert tortoise.
Mycoplasma testudineum in Free-ranging Desert Tortoises, Gopherus agassizii
TLDR
A causal relationship between M. testudineum and URTD in desert tortoises is supported and pathologic changes observed in one or more histologic sections of either one or both nasal cavities of each tortoise are supported.
Mycoplasmosis and upper respiratory tract disease of tortoises: a review and update.
Mycoplasmosis in Free-ranging Desert Tortoises in Utah and Arizona
TLDR
A clinical examination of 63 free-ranging desert tortoises for signs of URTD and sampling for Mycoplasma agassizii, the causative agent of U RTD, found that in the Mojave Desert, there were no clinical signs ofURTD, but two Tortoises were seropositive, and two tortoise had positive PCR results.
SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE IN THE DESERT TORTOISE IN THE WESTERN MOJAVE DESERT OF CALIFORNIA
TLDR
There is evidence to suggest that animals may remain ELISA+ without showing overt disease, a clinical pattern consistent with the chronic nature of most mycoplasmal infections, and trends suggesting that the clinical expression of disease may be cyclical.
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