author={Aleksandr Noy and Dmitri V. Vezenov and Charles M. Lieber},
  journal={Annual Review of Materials Science},
Atomic force microscopy is an imaging tool used widely in fundamental research, although it has, like other scanned probe microscopies, provided only limited information about the chemical nature of systems studied. Modification of force microscope probe tips by covalent linking of organic monolayers that terminate in well-defined functional groups enables direct probing of molecular interactions and imaging with chemical sensitivity. This new chemical force microscopy technique has been used… Expand
Chemical force microscopy: probing chemical origin of interfacial forces and adhesion
Intermolecular interactions between distinct chemical functionalities define a multitude of adhesion events in chemistry, biology and materials science. Modern techniques for measuring molecularExpand
Strength in numbers: probing and understanding intermolecular bonding with chemical force microscopy.
  • A. Noy
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Scanning
  • 2008
It is shown that even though the measured rupture force is almost never unique for a given bond, force spectroscopy measurements can still determine the essential interaction parameters. Expand
Chemical modifications of atomic force microscopy tips.
This chapter presents an overview of chemical modifications of tips that have been reported to date with regards to the proper fixation of probe molecules, focusing particularly on chemical procedures developed to anchor biological molecules on AFM tips. Expand
Atomic Force Microscopy in Analysis of Polymers
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in which a sharp probe is employed for profiling surfaces with unique resolution, has developed into an invaluable multidisciplinary technique for advancedExpand
Atomic Force Microscopy–AFM
Atomic force microscopy is a powerful, high-resolution technique capable of recording topographic images of a wide variety of samples. Two key strengths of AFM are its ability to produce images inExpand
Probing Soft Matter with the Atomic Force Microscopies: Imaging and Force Spectroscopy
The development of atomic force microscopy has evolved into a wide variety of microscopy and characterization techniques well beyond conventional imaging. The focus of this review is onExpand
Modified tips: molecules to cells
Abstract Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has revolutionized surface characterization by allowing the researcher to examine the molecular structure of virtually any sample under virtually anyExpand
Atomic force microscopy to study intermolecular forces and bonds associated with bacteria.
  • S. Lower
  • Materials Science, Medicine
  • Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 2011
This chapter describes how AFM can be used to measure forces and bonds between a bacterium and another surface, and an example of the use of AFM on Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterium that is often associated with biofilms in humans. Expand
Chemical Composition of Polymer Surfaces Imaged by Atomic Force Microscopy and Complementary Approaches
In this article we review the recent developments in the field of high resolution lateral mapping of the surface chemical composition of polymers by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and otherExpand
Force measurements with the atomic force microscope: Technique, interpretation and applications
Abstract The atomic force microscope (AFM) is not only a tool to image the topography of solid surfaces at high resolution. It can also be used to measure force-versus-distance curves. Such curves,Expand


Chemical bonds studied with functionalized atomic force microscopy tips
Abstract Chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips were produced by using thiol molecules. A new statistical method which produces information about single chemical bond strength fromExpand
Functional Group Imaging by Chemical Force Microscopy
By monitoring the friction between a specifically functionalized tip and sample, one can produce friction images that display predictable contrast and correspond to the spatial distribution of functional groups on the sample surface. Expand
Imaging crystals, polymers, and processes in water with the atomic force microscope.
Images of mica demonstrate that atomic resolution is possible on rigid materials, thus opening the possibility of atomic-scale corrosion experiments on nonconductors and showing the potential of the AFM for revealing the structure of molecules important in biology and medicine. Expand
Combining optical and atomic force microscopy for life sciences research.
The robust design of this microscope, termed the BioScope, enables the operator to use fluorescent markers on a wide variety of biological specimens to determine internal structure to 200 nm resolution and determine surface morphology of the same sample to 20 nm resolution while imaging under physiological conditions. Expand
From molecules to cells: imaging soft samples with the atomic force microscope.
An overview is presented on the application of atomic force microscopy to organic samples ranging from thin ordered films at molecular resolution to living cells and novel imaging modes are introduced that exploit different aspects of the tip-sample interaction for local measurements of the micromechanical properties of the sample. Expand
Chemical Force Microscopy: Exploiting Chemically-Modified Tips To Quantify Adhesion, Friction, and Functional Group Distributions in Molecular Assemblies
Chemical force microscopy (CFM) has been used to measure adhesion and friction forces between probe tips and substrates covalently modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) that terminate inExpand
Adhesion Force Measurements Using an Atomic Force Microscope Upgraded with a Linear Position Sensitive Detector.
The capabilities of the AFM to measure adhesive forces can be extended by replacing the four-quadrant photodiode detection sensor with an external linear position sensitive detector and by utilizing a dedicated user-programmable signal generator and acquisiton system. Expand
Solvent Exclusion and Chemical Contrast in Scanning Force Microscopy
The importance of a solvent in regulating the adhesion forces between surfaces is studied quantitatively with scanning force microscopy. Both samples and tips are coated with alkyl thiolateExpand
Sensitivity of Frictional Forces to pH on a Nanometer Scale: A Lateral Force Microscopy Study
An atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in the lateral (frictional) force mode (LFM) was used to investigate the pH dependence of kinetic friction between a silicon nitride tip and an oxidizedExpand
Interpretation issues in force microscopy
In this paper, we will discuss force microscopy (FM) and its potential for determining mechanical properties of thin films. We will introduce the basic principles of FM, and demonstrate how FM can beExpand