CHARGE EQUILIBRATION TIME OF SLOW, HIGHLY CHARGED IONS IN SOLIDS

@article{Hattass1999CHARGEET,
  title={CHARGE EQUILIBRATION TIME OF SLOW, HIGHLY CHARGED IONS IN SOLIDS},
  author={Mirko Hattass and Thomas Schenkel and Alex V. Hamza and Alan V. Barnes and M. W. Newman and Joe W. McDonald and Thomas R. Niedermayr and Guillaume Machicoane and D. H. Schneider},
  journal={Physical Review Letters},
  year={1999},
  volume={82},
  pages={4795-4798}
}
We report observations of nonequilibrium charge state distributions of slow, highly charged (33+{le} q{le}75+) ions after transmission of thin carbon foils. Charge equilibration times are determined directly from the dependencies of exit charge states on projectile velocity (0.5{times}10{sup 6}{lt}v{lt}10{sup 6} m/s) and foil thickness (5{endash}10thinspthinspnm). Ions like Xe{sup 44+} and Au{sup 68+} are found to equilibrate inside of solid matter in a time of only 7thinspthinspfs. {copyright… 

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