author={Matthew S. Tiscareno and Renu Malhotra},
  journal={The Astronomical Journal},
  pages={827 - 837}
We carried out extensive numerical orbit integrations to probe the long-term chaotic dynamics of the two strongest mean-motion resonances of Neptune in the Kuiper Belt, the 3:2 (Plutinos) and 2:1 (Twotinos). Our primary results include a computation of the relative volumes of phase space characterized by large- and small-resonance libration amplitudes, and maps of resonance stability measured by mean chaotic diffusion rate. We find that Neptune's 2:1 resonance has weaker overall long-term… 

Neptune's 5:2 Resonance in the Kuiper Belt

Observations of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) in Neptune’s 5:2 resonance present two puzzles: this third-order resonance hosts a surprisingly large population, comparable to the prominent populations of

Long-term Dynamical Stability in the Outer Solar System. I. The Regular and Chaotic Evolution of the 34 Largest Trans-Neptunian Objects

We carried out an extensive analysis of the stability of the outer solar system, making use of the frequency analysis technique over short-term integrations of nearly 100,000 test particles, as well

The Contribution of Dwarf Planets to the Origin of Jupiter Family Comets

We explore the long-term evolution of a bias-free orbital representation of the cometary nuclei (with diameters above 2 km) of the Kuiper Belt, using the so-called L7 synthetic model from CFEPS,


Approximately 10%–20% of all Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) occupy mean-motion resonances with Neptune. This dynamical configuration likely resulted from resonance capture as Neptune migrated outward

A study of the high-inclination population in the Kuiper belt – I. The Plutinos

The dynamics of the high-inclination Plutinos is systematically studied. We first present the peculiar features of the 2:3 Neptune mean motion resonance (NMMR) for inclined orbits, especially for the

Neptune’s resonances in the scattered disk

The Scattered Disk Objects (SDOs) are thought to be a small fraction of the ancient population of leftover planetesimals in the outer solar system that were gravitationally scattered by the giant


With the use of long-term numerical simulations, we study the evolution and orbital behavior of cometary nuclei in cold Kuiper belt–like debris disks under the gravitational influence of dwarf

Not a simple relationship between Neptune's migration speed and Kuiper belt inclination excitation.

It is concluded that the observed large inclination dispersion of Kuiper belt objects does not require Neptune's migration to be slow; planetary migration with e-folding timescales of 5, 10, 30, and 50 Myr can all yield inclination dispersions similar to the observed Plutino and hot classical populations, with no correlation between the degree of inclination excitation and migration speed.

Dynamical evolution of escaped plutinos, another source of Centaurs

Context. Weakly chaotic orbits that diffuse very slowly have been found to exist in the plutino population. These orbits correspond to long-term plutino escapers and represent the plutinos presently

Neptune’s Migration into a Stirred-Up Kuiper Belt: A Detailed Comparison of Simulations to Observations

We use N-body simulations to examine the consequences of Neptune's outward migration into the Kuiper Belt, with the simulated end states being compared rigorously and quantitatively to the



Chaotic Diffusion and the Origin of Comets from the 2/3 Resonance in the Kuiper Belt

Abstract The dynamical structure of the 2/3 resonance at small inclination is explored using numerical integrations of test particles to compute the evolution of proper elements with time. The basic

Mean Motion Resonances in the Trans-neptunian Region

The stability of the 2:3 mean motion resonance with Neptune is systematically explored and compared to the observed resonant population. It is shown that orbits with small and moderate amplitudes of

On the Plutinos and Twotinos of the Kuiper Belt

We illuminate dynamical properties of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) in the 3 : 2 (Plutino) and 2 : 1 ("Twotino") Neptunian resonances within the model of resonant capture and migration. We analyze a

Mean Motion Resonances in the Transneptunian Region. Part II: The 1 : 2, 3 : 4, and Weaker Resonances

Abstract The stability of orbits in the transneptunian region is numerically computed. It is found that, in analogy to the asteroid belt, there exist many chaotic layers associated with thin

The Phase Space Structure Near Neptune Resonances in the Kuiper Belt

The Solar system beyond Neptune is believed to house a population of small primordial bodies left over from the planet formation process. The region up to heliocentric distance -50 AU (a.k.a. the

The Dynamics of Known Centaurs

We have numerically investigated the long-term dynamical behavior of known Centaurs. This class of objects is thought to constitute the transitional population between the Kuiper belt and the

Close Approaches of Trans-Neptunian Objects to Pluto Have Left Observable Signatures on Their Orbital Distribution

It is shown that in addition to four outer planets (Jupiter to Neptune) Pluto should be also taken into account in studies of the orbital dynamics in the trans-Neptunian region. Pluto's effect is

Simulations of the population of Centaurs – I. The bulk statistics

Large-scale simulations of the Centaur population are carried out. The evolution of 23 328 particles based on the orbits of 32 well-known Centaurs is followed for up to 3 Myr in the forward and

From the Kuiper Belt to Jupiter-Family Comets: The Spatial Distribution of Ecliptic Comets☆

Abstract We present numerical orbital integrations of thousands of massless particles as they evolve from Neptune-encountering orbits in the Kuiper belt for up to 1 Gyr or until they either impact a