CHANGING RACIAL LABELS: FROM “COLORED” TO “NEGRO” TO “BLACK” TO “AFRICAN AMERICAN”

@article{Smith1992CHANGINGRL,
  title={CHANGING RACIAL LABELS: FROM “COLORED” TO “NEGRO” TO “BLACK” TO “AFRICAN AMERICAN”},
  author={Tom W. Smith},
  journal={Public Opinion Quarterly},
  year={1992},
  volume={56},
  pages={496-514}
}
  • Tom W. Smith
  • Published 21 December 1992
  • History
  • Public Opinion Quarterly
Labels play an important role in defining groups and individuals who belong to the groups. This has been especially true for racial and ethnic groups in general and for Blacks in particular. Over the past century the standard term for Blacks has shifted from "Colored" to "Negro" to "Black" and now perhaps to "African American." The changes can be seen as attempts by Blacks to redefine themselves and to gain respect and standing in a society that has held them to be subordinate and inferior… 

Tables from this paper

The inclusion of the term ‘color’ in any racial label is racist, is it not?
Through an examination of the term people of color, this conceptual paper illustrates how the use of historical racial labels in the US, supposedly aimed at denouncing racism, seems to reproduce that
The Naming
The cultural and political list for African Americans is long and complicated. Consider the following for example: "other persons," Africans, slaves, Blacks, people of color, Negro, negro, colored,
Making Blackness, Making Policy
Too often the acknowledgment that race is a social construction ignores exactly how this construction occurs. By illuminating the way in which the category of blackness and black individuals are
Social Identity and Preferred Ethnic/Racial Labels for Blacks in Canada
A number of studies conducted in the United States have found that Black and African American are the preferred labels for ethnic/racial self-designation by Blacks. The purpose of this study was to
Exploring How the Terms "Black" and "African American" May Shape Health Communication Research.
TLDR
This essay examines the histories and meanings of "Black" and "African American" as identity labels and explores their importance in relationship to the effective recruitment of DADs to health research and clinical trials and calls for more research into the effects of mis labels.
Black: Exploring Racial Label Preferences of African Americans and Afro-Caribbeans in the United States
People of African descent living in the United States subscribe to a variety of racial self-identification labels. Given their historical and political meaning, ‘Black’ or ‘African American’ have
«African American» as a new social representation
The use of African American as a new denomination for a group previously referred to as Black has rapidly become standard practice in American society. This paper analyzes how the introduction of
Constructing Ethnicity: Creating and Recreating Ethnic Identity and Culture
Contrary to expectations implicit in the image of the “melting pot” that ethnic distinctions could be eliminated in US society, the resurgence of ethnic nationalism in the United States and around
“Latino” or “Hispanic”? The Sociodemographic Correlates of Panethnic Label Preferences among U.S. Latinos/Hispanics
Despite different origins, “Hispanic” and “Latino” are often used interchangeably to describe people with Latin American ancestry in the United States. Nevertheless, research consistently finds
“African-Australians” Identity in the Making: an Exploratory Analysis of its Imagery and Explanatory Power
This article explores the recently introduced term ‘African-Australians’ that has been commonly used to describe African migrants in Australia. The hyphenated term discursively denotes all black
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 19 REFERENCES
American pluralism and the Jewish community
In a landmark volume of new essays destined to reshape the parameters of future discourse on American Jews and their relationships to major ideologies and organization of our time, Lipset has brought
Parting the Waters : America in the King Years 1954-63
Hailed as the most masterful story ever told of the American civil rights movement, "Parting the Waters" is destined to endure for generations. Moving from the fiery political baptism of Martin
Racial and cultural minorities : an analysis of prejudice and discrimination
I: Causes and Consequences of Prejudice and Discrimination.- 1: Types of Majority-Minority Situations.- 2: The Meaning of Race.- 3. Discrimination and Prejudice as Weapons in Group Conflict.- 4. The
Harvard encyclopedia of American ethnic groups
Groups and Definitions Acadians Marietta M. LeBreton Afghans David C. Champagne Africans Afro-Americans Thomas C. Holt Albanians Aleuts Dorothy M. Jones Alsatians Frederick C. Luebke American Indians
Unkind Words: Ethnic Labeling from Redskin to WASP
Preface Traditional Slurs Ethnic Slurs in Historical American Slang Six Types of Slurs and Their Themes Two Hundred Personal Names that Became Epithets Men ... and One Hundred Epithets for Ethnic
The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom 1750–1925
This statement by the novelist Ralph Ellison captures the oppressive condition of enslavement, but also reveals the collective strength of the African and Black American in the development and
...
...