To help determine CD83 function, a cDNA encoding a soluble protein containing the CD83 extracellular domain was fused with a mutated human IgG1 constant region (CD83Ig) and expressed by stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells. Purified CD83Ig bound to peripheral blood monocytes and a subset of activated CD3CD8 lymphocytes but did not bind to FcR. Monocytes that had adhered to plastic lost their ability to bind to CD83Ig after 90 min of in vitro incubation. CD83Ig bound to two of five T cell lines tested, HPB-ALL and Jurkat. The binding to HPB-ALL cells significantly increased when they were grown at a low pH (pH 6.5), whereas binding to Jurkat cells increased after apoptosis was induced with anti-Fas mAb. B cell and monocytic lines did not bind CD83Ig and neither did CD56 NK cells or granulocytes. Full-length CD83 expressed by a transfected carcinoma line mediated CD83-dependent adhesion to HPB-ALL cells. CD83Ig immunoprecipitated and immunoblotted a 72-kDa protein from HPB-ALL cells. Binding of CD83Ig to HPB-ALL cells was eliminated by neuraminidase treatment of the cells. We conclude that CD83 is an adhesion receptor with a counterreceptor expressed on monocytes and a subset of activated or stressed T lymphocytes, and that interaction between CD83 and its counterreceptor is dependent upon the state of glycosylation of a 72-kDa counterreceptor by sialic acid residues. In view of the selectivity of the expression of CD83 and its ligand, we postulate that the interaction between the two plays an important role in the induction and regulation of immune responses. The Journal of Immunology, 2001, 166: 3865–3872.