CD4+ T cells are required for secondary expansion and memory in CD8+ T lymphocytes

@article{Janssen2003CD4TC,
  title={CD4+ T cells are required for secondary expansion and memory in CD8+ T lymphocytes},
  author={E. Janssen and E. Lemmens and T. Wolfe and U. Christen and M. Herrath and S. Schoenberger},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2003},
  volume={421},
  pages={852-856}
}
A long-standing paradox in cellular immunology concerns the conditional requirement for CD4+ T-helper (TH) cells in the priming of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in vivo. Whereas CTL responses against certain viruses can be primed in the absence of CD4+ T cells, others, such as those mediated through ‘cross-priming’ by host antigen-presenting cells, are dependent on TH cells. A clearer understanding of the contribution of TH cells to CTL development has been hampered by the fact… Expand
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