Cell-surface CCR5 is a major coreceptor with CD4 glycoprotein, mediating cellular entry of CCR5 strains of HIV-1 or SIV. We targeted the SIV CCR5 coreceptor in a combined CCR5-SIV antigen immunization strategy. Rhesus macaques were immunized i.m. with the 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) covalently linked to the CCR5 peptides, SIV gpl20 and p27. Intravenous challenge with SIV mac 8980 prevented SIV infection or decreased the viral load with the CCR5-SIV combined vaccine. CC chemokines and antibodies which block and downmodulateCCR5 were induced, as well as immune responses to the subunit SIV antigens. This novel vaccination strategy complements cognate immunity to SIV with innate immunity to the CCR5 coreceptor of SIV.