CCR3 and CCR5 are co-receptors for HIV-1 infection of microglia

@article{He1997CCR3AC,
  title={CCR3 and CCR5 are co-receptors for HIV-1 infection of microglia},
  author={Jianglin He and Youzhi Chen and M. Farzan and Hyeryun Choe and Asa Ohagen and Suzanne Gartner and Jorge A. Busciglio and Xiaoyu Yang and Wolfgang Hofmann and Walter Newman and Charles Reay Mackay and Joseph G. Sodroski and Dana Gabuzda},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1997},
  volume={385},
  pages={645-649}
}
Several members of the chemokine receptor family are used together with CD4 for HIV-1 entry into target cells1–6. T cell line-tropic (T-tropic) HIV-1 viruses use the chemokine receptor CXCR4 as a co-receptor1, whereas macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) primary viruses use CCR5 (refs 2–6). Individuals with defective CCR5 alleles exhibit resistance to HIV-1 infection7,8, suggesting that CCR5 has an important role in vivo in HIV-1 replication. A subset of primary viruses can use CCR3 as well as CCR5 as… 

Localization of HIV-1 co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 in the brain of children with AIDS.

TLDR
Findings suggest that CCR5-positive mononuclear cells, macrophages, and microglia contribute to disease progression in the central nervous system of children and adults with AIDS by serving as targets for virus replication.

Co‐receptor use by HIV and inhibition of HIV infection by chemokine receptor ligands

TLDR
Different chemokines and derivatives that bind co-receptors for their capacity to inhibit HIV infection were investigated and one compound, aminooxypentane or AOP-RANTES, was a particularly potent inhibitor of HIV infection on PBMCs, macrophages and C CR5+ cell lines and demonstrated the great promise of therapeutic strategies aimed at CCR5.

Microglia Express CCR5, CXCR4, and CCR3, but of These, CCR5 Is the Principal Coreceptor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Dementia Isolates

TLDR
It is found that virus pseudotyped with the DS-br and RC-br envelopes can infect cells transfected with CD4 in conjunction with the G-protein-coupled receptors APJ, CCR8, and GPR15, which have been previously implicated in HIV entry.

Role of the β-Chemokine Receptors CCR3 and CCR5 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Monocytes and Microglia

TLDR
The importance of mononuclear phagocyte heterogeneity in establishing HIV-1 infection and persistence is demonstrated, as well as the importance of chemokine receptors for infection of these cells, which are necessary coreceptors for HIV- 1 entry.

Chemokine receptors and mechanisms of cell death in HIV neuropathogenesis.

TLDR
Understanding the role of CXCR4 and other chemokine receptors in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis will help to advance the development of new therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of neurologic disorders associated with HIV- 1 infection.

Determinants of HIV-1 Coreceptor Function on CC Chemokine Receptor 3

TLDR
It is concluded that specificity determinants for different Envs are located in shared and distinct extracellular regions of CCR3, the transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains make major contributions to coreceptor function, and C CR3 may be used by certain HIV-1 strains as a cell fusion factor on macrophages.

Chemokine receptors and virus entry in the central nervous system.

TLDR
Understanding the role ofChemokine receptors and their chemokine ligands in HIV-1 and SIV infection of the CNS will elucidate mechanisms of viral tropism and pathogenesis and advance the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Dendritic cells express multiple chemokine receptors used as coreceptors for HIV entry.

TLDR
The presence of multiple chemokine receptors on dendritic cells (DC) that may function as coreceptors for HIV entry is identified and identified, providing evidence for the presence of a non-CXCR4 SDF-1 receptor on DC that is used mainly by T-tropic strains of HIV.

gp120 Induces Cell Death in Human Neuroblastoma Cells Through the CXCR4 and CCR5 Chemokine Receptors

TLDR
In this study, insight is gained into the mechanism(s) of neurotoxicity elicited by the viral glycoprotein using the human neuroblastoma CHP100 cell line as an experimental model and suggests that the neuronal injury observed in HIV‐1 infection could be due to direct (or indirect) interactions between the viral protein gp120 and chemokine and/or NMDA receptors.

Receptors Used as Coreceptors for HIV Entry Dendritic Cells Express Multiple Chemokine

TLDR
The presence of multiple chemokine receptors on dendritic cells (DC) that may function as coreceptors for HIV entry is identified, providing evidence for the presence of a non-CXCR4 SDF-1 receptor on DC that is used mainly by T-tropic strains of HIV.
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