C4 photosynthesis: discovery and resolution

  title={C4 photosynthesis: discovery and resolution},
  author={Marshall D. Hatch},
  journal={Photosynthesis Research},
  • M. D. Hatch
  • Published 2004
  • Physics, Chemistry
  • Photosynthesis Research
This Minireview provides a brief account of the scene and interesting turn of events surrounding the discovery and resolution of the mechanism of C4 photosynthesis, as well as the recognition of the process by the wider plant science community. 

Metabolite profiles reveal interspecific variation in operation of the Calvin–Benson cycle in both C4 and C3 plants

Interspecific divergence in metabolite profiles in C3 and C4 species points to differing evolutionary trajectories of the Calvin–Benson cycle in different seed plant lineages

Targeted metabolite profiling as a top-down approach to uncover interspecies diversity and identify key conserved operational features in the Calvin–Benson cycle

It is proposed that analogous selective pressures drove lineage-dependent evolution of the CBC in C3 species, and conserved features including inactivation of enzymes in low irradiance, and maintenance of CBC metabolites at relatively high levels in the absence of net CO2 fixation are revealed.

Lessons from Nature: A Personal Perspective

This chapter highlights selected contributions to photosynthesis research made from an evolutionary and ecological perspective and, specifically, to the characterization of zeaxanthin-associated

Discoveries in Oxygenic Photosynthesis (1727–2003): A Perspective

This history begins with the observation of the English clergyman Stephen Hales that plants derive nourishment from the air and includes the definitive experiments in the 1960–1965 period establishing the two-photosystem and two-light reaction scheme of oxygenic photosynthesis.

Thirty Years of Photosynthesis 1974–2004, by Grahame J. Kelly and Erwin Latzko

The title of the book is misleading as it covers only the reviews by the authors in one area of photosynthesis: Carbon Metabolism, and provides historical snapshots of the development of now extensive understanding of the enzymes, biochemical regulation, and organelles associated with photosynthetic carbon metabolism.

Pioneering research on C4 photosynthesis: implications for crop water relations and productivity in comparison to C3 cropping systems.

This review summarizes the history of the discoveries of the many anatomical, agronomical and physiological aspects of C 4 photosynthesis and documents the scientists at the University of Arizona and theUniversity of California, Davis, who made these early discoveries.

Chapter 11 Transport Processes: Connecting the Reactions of C4 Photosynthesis

This chapter will review the different types of C4 cycle reactions and the transport processes required for each sub-type based on the localization of the enzymes involved in the C5 cycle, including discussion of candidate transport proteins characterized in C3 systems.

C4 Cycles: Past, Present, and Future Research on C4 Photosynthesis

An overview of the current understanding, the questions that are being addressed, and the issues that lie ahead of understanding how the C4 pathway evolved, how it is regulated, and how it might be manipulated is provided.

Chloroplast structure: from chlorophyll granules to supra-molecular architecture of thylakoid membranes

This review provides a brief historical account of how microscopical studies of chloroplasts have contributed to current knowledge of the structural and functional organization of thylakoid membranes and points to the possible uses of electron microscope tomography techniques in future structural studies ofThylakoids.



Resolving C4 photosynthesis : Trials, tribulations and other unpublished stories

In this lecture the author reminisced about three critical phases of research on C4 photosynthesis.These case histories had their origins in the very early studies of the process but then spanned

Forty years of photosynthesis and related activities

  • M. Calvin
  • Chemistry
    Photosynthesis Research
  • 2004
AbstractAt the heart of this review are the 10 years of work leading up to the award of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1961 for the elucidation of the multiple steps in the path of carbon during


Malonate has been found to inhibit the formation of malic acid during short periods of photosynthesis with radioactive carbon dioxide. This result, together with studies which show the photosynthetic

Carboxydismutase activity in plants with and without β-carboxylation photosynthesis

Chloroplast-containing vascular-bundle-sheath cells which seem to be present only in plants with β-carboxylation apparently contain relatively high carboxydismutase activity.

Forty years of microbial photosynthesis research: Where it came from and what it led to

This work characterized and modeled the completely new bacterial intracellular inclusions responsible for the synthesis and degredation of biosynthetic, biodegradable and biocompatible bacterial polyesters in the cytoplasm of Pseudomonads.

Further studies on a new pathway of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation in sugar-cane and its occurrence in other plant species.

A labelling pattern typical of sugar-cane was found in several species of Gramineae but not in others, and of 16 species from other Families only a species of Cyperaceae contained a large proportion of the fixed radioactivity in oxaloacetate, malate and aspartate.

The path of carbon in photosynthesis.

  • M. Calvin
  • Environmental Science, Chemistry
    Harvey lectures
  • 1950
Exposure of various plants to CY4-labeled carbon dioxide under a number of different conditions both in the light and in the dark, followed by killing the plants and analysis of the labeled compounds

Comparative studies on the activity of carboxylases and other enzymes in relation to the new pathway of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation in tropical grasses.

Phosphopyruvate carboxylase was apparently the major photosynthetic carbon dioxide-fixing enzyme in the tropical grasses, although malic enzyme may contribute to a lesser extent.

NADP-specific malate dehydrogenase and glycerate kinase in leaves and evidence for their location in chloroplasts.

  • M. D. HatchC. Slack
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • 1969

C[4] plant biology

The C4 Plants and Humanity: H. van der Merwe, C4 plants and the Development of Human Societies and the Future of C4 Photosynthesis, and Appendix: A List of the C4 Taxa of the World.