Bystander intervention in emergencies: diffusion of responsibility.

  title={Bystander intervention in emergencies: diffusion of responsibility.},
  author={John M. Darley and Bibb Latan{\'e}},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={8 4},
  • J. Darley, B. Latané
  • Published 1968
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of personality and social psychology
Ss overheard an epileptic seizure. They believed either that they alone heard the emergency, or that 1 or 4 unseen others were also present. As predicted the presence of other bystanders reduced the individual's feelings of personal responsibility and lowered his speed of reporting (p < .01). In groups of size 3, males reported no faster than females, and females reported no slower when the 1 other bystander was a male rather than a female. In general, personality and background measures were… Expand
Bystander reactions to a violent theft: crime in Jerusalem.
Helping was reduced by diffusion of responsibility and slowed by negative social influence but was increased by evaluation apprehension, and differences traceable to social influence appeared prior to those from the other processes. Expand
Social Comparison and Bystander Intervention in Emergencies
In a 2 × 2 experimental design, male subjects were exposed to a “lady in distress” in the presence of a confederate who was either similar or dissimilar to the subject and who reacted to theExpand
Bystander reactions to a violent theft: crime in Jerusalem
Seventy-two male Israeli students were exposed to a violent crime in the course of a bogus discussion. Their awareness of other bystanders' lack of reaction to the emergency (social influence) andExpand
The Unresponsive Bystander: Are Bystanders More Responsive in Dangerous Emergencies?
Previous research in bystander intervention found that the presence of other bystanders reduces helping behaviour in an emergency (bystander effect). This research was mainly conducted in the contextExpand
Bystander's Intervention in Situations of Violence
Study of numerous simulated situations of assault or murder indicated that bystander's intervention depends on the dynamics of the group and the personality of the individual member who impulsively gives aid to a victim. Expand
A lady in distress: Inhibiting effects of friends and strangers on bystander intervention ☆
Abstract One hundred twenty male undergraduates waiting either alone, with a friend, or with a stranger, overheard a woman fall and cry out in pain. Two-person groups were less likely to offer helpExpand
The effect of another bystander's ability to help on bystander intervention in an emergency☆
Abstract Previous research in bystander intervention found that the presence of other bystanders reduced the speed of reporting an emergency. The present research tested the hypothesis that it is notExpand
Previous studies of bystander intervention in emergencies have found that an individual is more likely to intervene if he witnesses the emergency alone than as a member of a group. The present studyExpand
Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies.
Male undergraduates found themselves in a smoke-filling room either alone, with 2 nonreacting others, or in groups of 3. As predicted, Ss were less likely to report the smoke when in the presence ofExpand
Rational bystanders.
It is demonstrated that the occurrence of the bystander effect has rational roots, and three studies reveal that the presence of other bystanders does not inhibit helping when effective helping requires more than one help-giver. Expand


Child Training and Personality
  • S. Provence
  • Computer Science
  • The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
  • 1954
This book is a report of the authors' investigations concerned with the interrelationships between the early experiences of an individual as they affect his personality and the personalityExpand
Social Learning and Imitation
MOST past studies of learning have been concerned with the acquisition of intellectual or motor habits and skills. The learning process has been studied, so to speak, in a social vacuum. With theExpand
Effects of Experimenter Awareness and Sex of Subject and Experimenter on Reactions to Dependency Relationship
Previous experimental research has demonstrated that college students become motivated to help a peer who needs their assistance even though (a) they themselves will gain no tangible benefits throughExpand
Ef - fects of experimenter awareness and sex of subject on reactions to dependency relationships
  • 1964
Effects of experimenter awareness and sex of subject on reactions to dependency relationships
  • Sociometry
  • 1964
Murder they heard
  • Nation
  • 1964
Murder they heard
  • Nation
  • 1964
The approval motive
  • The approval motive
  • 1964
The prevalence of machiavellian orientations
  • 1964