Bush encroachment in southern Africa: changes and causes

  title={Bush encroachment in southern Africa: changes and causes},
  author={Timothy G. O’Connor and James R Puttick and Michael Timm Hoffman},
  journal={African Journal of Range \& Forage Science},
  pages={67 - 88}
Bush encroachment has been recognised in southern Africa since the late nineteenth century. Our review of 23 studies showed that the rate of woody cover change has ranged from −0.131 to 1.275% y−1. Encroachment was most rapid on small protected areas, intermediate under commercial tenure, and slowest under communal tenure and large, natural environments with mega-herbivores present. Several drivers of bush encroachment, which interact and change over time, have been proposed. Fires, for example… 
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