author={Justin Watkins},
  journal={Journal of the International Phonetic Association},
  pages={291 - 295}
  • J. Watkins
  • Published 1 December 2001
  • Journal of the International Phonetic Association
Burmese is the official language of Burma. (In English, ‘Burmese’ and ‘Burma’ are also known as ‘Myanmar’, and ‘Rangoon’ as ‘Yangon’.) It is the major language of the Burmic branch of Tibeto-Burman, and is spoken natively by upwards of 30 million people in the lower valleys of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin rivers, the central plain of Burma and the Irrawaddy Delta, and non-natively by up to another 10 million speakers of other languages in Burma. 
Reduction in Burmese Compounds
Burmese is a sesquisyllabic language that allows major syllables to be reduced to minor syllables in certain circumstances. This occurs in many compounds, where the first word may reduce its final
English loanword adaptation in Burmese
This paper provides a descriptive account of the main patterns found in the adaptation of English loanwords in Burmese. First, English segments missing from the Burmese inventory are replaced by
A Descriptive Grammar of Jejara (Para Naga)
Jejara (Para Naga) is a Tibeto-Burman language whose speakers live in the Naga Hills of northwest Myanmar. This research is among the very first works published about the language. The linguistic
Tone and Phonation in Southeast Asian Languages
It is shown that in addition to a large number of atonal languages, the tone languages of the region are actually far more diverse than usually assumed, and employ phonation type contrasts at least as often as pitch.
The Phonology of Hong Kong English and Nigerian English: A Comparison
Based on the firsthand acoustic data from 16 Southern Min varieties used in Huilai and Puning counties, Guangdong, this paper has found four major tonal patterns, which reveals systematic tonal
Southeast Asian tone in areal perspective
Tone is often presented as one of the quintessential features identifying mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA)1 as a linguistic area (Henderson 1965; Matisoff 2001; Enfield 2011). For Matisoff, the
Anatomy of a grammatical tone
  • Mimi Tian
  • Computer Science
    Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area
  • 2018
Several well-distinguished conditions of different nature and different domain for this tonal alternation are demonstrated, providing the basis for a grammatical analysis which tests the theoretical options for representing a tonal morpheme in the morpho-syntactic structure of a sentence.
Hmong Elaborate Expressions are Coordinate Compounds
On exposure to Hmong discourse 1 discourse, or that of many other structurally-similar Southeast Asian languages—the speaker of English can hardly help but be impressed by the pervasiveness of
Sonority and syllable structure: The case of Burmese tone
The relationship between tone and sonority has been a recurrent theme in the literature over recent years, raising questions of how suprasegmental features like tone interact with segmental or
The distribution, reconstruction and varied fates of topographical deixis in Trans-Himalayan (Sino-Tibetan)
Abstract Topographical deixis refers to a variety of spatial-environmental deixis, in which typically distal reference to entities is made in terms of a set of topographically-anchored referential


Notes on creaky and killed tone in Burmese
The World's Major Languages, 834±854
  • 1987
Register in Burmese
  • Tonation (Pacific Linguistics Series
  • 1982
Notes on the origins of Burmese creaky tone
Tokyo: Tokyo gaikokugo daigaku. tkinsD tF
  • Notes on creaky and killed tone in Burmese. SOAS Working Papers in Linguistics 10, 139±149. London: Department of Linguistics, School of Oriental and African Studies
  • 1977
Tonal units and tonal classi®cation: Panjabi, Tibetan and Burmese
  • Parole and Langue (PaÁkha Sanjam VIII 1975±1976),
  • 1977
A Reference Grammar of Colloquial Burmese
Phonology in Generative Grammar. Cambridge, MA & Oxford: Blackwell. vdefogedD F 8 wddiesonD s
  • A Reference Grammar of Colloquial Burmese
  • 1969
Junction in spoken Burmese
Junction in spoken Burmese. In Studies in linguistic analysis (special volume of the Transactions of the Philological Society), 104±138
  • 1957