author={Justin W. Watkins},
  journal={Journal of the International Phonetic Association},
  pages={291 - 295}
  • J. Watkins
  • Published 1 December 2001
  • Linguistics
  • Journal of the International Phonetic Association
Burmese is the official language of Burma. (In English, ‘Burmese’ and ‘Burma’ are also known as ‘Myanmar’, and ‘Rangoon’ as ‘Yangon’.) It is the major language of the Burmic branch of Tibeto-Burman, and is spoken natively by upwards of 30 million people in the lower valleys of the Irrawaddy and Chindwin rivers, the central plain of Burma and the Irrawaddy Delta, and non-natively by up to another 10 million speakers of other languages in Burma. 

Reduction in Burmese Compounds

Burmese is a sesquisyllabic language that allows major syllables to be reduced to minor syllables in certain circumstances. This occurs in many compounds, where the first word may reduce its final

English loanword adaptation in Burmese

This paper provides a descriptive account of the main patterns found in the adaptation of English loanwords in Burmese. First, English segments missing from the Burmese inventory are replaced by

Tone and Phonation in Southeast Asian Languages

It is shown that in addition to a large number of atonal languages, the tone languages of the region are actually far more diverse than usually assumed, and employ phonation type contrasts at least as often as pitch.

The Phonology of Hong Kong English and Nigerian English: A Comparison

Based on the firsthand acoustic data from 16 Southern Min varieties used in Huilai and Puning counties, Guangdong, this paper has found four major tonal patterns, which reveals systematic tonal

Southeast Asian tone in areal perspective

Tone is often presented as one of the quintessential features identifying mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA)1 as a linguistic area (Henderson 1965; Matisoff 2001; Enfield 2011). For Matisoff, the

Anatomy of a grammatical tone

  • Mimi Tian
  • Linguistics
    Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area
  • 2018
Several well-distinguished conditions of different nature and different domain for this tonal alternation are demonstrated, providing the basis for a grammatical analysis which tests the theoretical options for representing a tonal morpheme in the morpho-syntactic structure of a sentence.

Sonority and syllable structure: The case of Burmese tone

The relationship between tone and sonority has been a recurrent theme in the literature over recent years, raising questions of how suprasegmental features like tone interact with segmental or

The Suprasegmental Phonology of Yonghe Qiang in Typological Perspective

Author(s): Sims, Nathaniel Aaron | Advisor(s): Genetti, Carol | Abstract: This thesis is a description of suprasegmental phenomena in Yonghe Qiang, a Tibeto-Burman language spoken in Western Sichuan,

The distribution, reconstruction and varied fates of topographical deixis in Trans-Himalayan (Sino-Tibetan)

Abstract Topographical deixis refers to a variety of spatial-environmental deixis, in which typically distal reference to entities is made in terms of a set of topographically-anchored referential



Notes on the origins of Burmese creaky tone

A Reference Grammar of Colloquial Burmese

Junction in spoken Burmese

Notes on creaky and killed tone in Burmese

The World's Major Languages, 834±854

  • 1987

Tonal units and tonal classi®cation: Panjabi, Tibetan and Burmese

  • Parole and Langue (PaÁkha Sanjam VIII 1975±1976),
  • 1977

    Tokyo: Tokyo gaikokugo daigaku. tkinsD tF

    • Notes on creaky and killed tone in Burmese. SOAS Working Papers in Linguistics 10, 139±149. London: Department of Linguistics, School of Oriental and African Studies
    • 1977

    Register in Burmese

    • Tonation (Pacific Linguistics Series
    • 1982

    Junction in spoken Burmese. In Studies in linguistic analysis (special volume of the Transactions of the Philological Society), 104±138

    • 1957