Bupropion attenuates morphine tolerance and dependence: Possible role of glutamate, norepinephrine, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

  title={Bupropion attenuates morphine tolerance and dependence: Possible role of glutamate, norepinephrine, inflammation, and oxidative stress.},
  author={Mostafa Mahmoud Hamdy and Mohamed Mostafa Elbadr and Ahmed A. Barakat},
  journal={Pharmacological reports : PR},
  volume={70 5},
BACKGROUND Morphine - the main pillar of nociceptive pain management - systemic use is associated with development of tolerance and dependence. Tolerance and dependence lay a heavy burden in clinical pain management settings. An added weight to this dilemma is that effective, safe, and tolerable solution to this problem is still beyond reach. Antidepressants were reported as possible alleviators of opioid tolerance and dependence. One of the increasingly used antidepressant in clinical practice… Expand
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