Bupivacaine injection of eye muscles to treat strabismus

@article{Scott2006BupivacaineIO,
  title={Bupivacaine injection of eye muscles to treat strabismus},
  author={Alan B. Scott and Danielle E Alexander and Joel Miller},
  journal={British Journal of Ophthalmology},
  year={2006},
  volume={91},
  pages={146 - 148}
}
Background: Bupivacaine injected into animal muscles induces a cycle of myotoxicity, degeneration, regeneration and hypertrophy of muscle fibres, without adverse effects on other tissues. This induced hypertrophy can be harnessed to treat strabismus. Methods: Bupivacaine, 4.5 ml of a 0.75% solution, was injected into the right lateral rectus (RLR) muscle of a patient who had diplopia and who showed 14-prism-dioptres oesotropia. Results: RLR paresis persisted for 7 days. Then, the RLR regained… 

Bupivacaine injection of the lateral rectus muscle to treat esotropia.

Treating strabismus by injecting the agonist muscle with bupivacaine and the antagonist with botulinum toxin.

Injections of BUP and BT corrected 7 patients with comitant horizontal strabismus an average of 19.7Delta, about double the correction reported from BUP injection alone.

Bupivacaine and botulinum toxin to treat comitant strabismus.

There was an increase of muscle thickness in both botulinum toxin A and bupivacaine injected muscles after 30 days of injection when measured by ultrasonography, and this change was more pronounced on lateral rectus muscles after bupvacaine injection.

Applications of bupivacaine in the non-surgical treatments of strabismus: a review

Although BUP is promising non-surgical strabismus management, however, it has its own limitations, the need for direct infusion of a relatively large volume of BUP may be one of its major drawbacks that limits its usage in an office method.

Bupivacaine injection combined with recession of antagonist rectus muscle to treat sensory strabismus

Bupivacaine injection in the antagonist of a recessed extraocular muscle (EOM) appears to add an effect to the standard dose-response of a muscle recession, and for patients with esotropia, a single MR recession combined with bupvacaine in the LR can produce a successful motor alignment.

Bupivacaine injection for comitant horizontal strabismus: clinical and radiological results.

Bupivacaine injection improved eye alignment in small-angle horizontal comitant strabismus, effectively diagnosed with orbital magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate volumetric changes of the extraocular muscles and evaluated clinical effectiveness and associated radiological changes.

Pharmacologic injection treatment of comitant strabismus.

Intramuscular Bupivacaine Injection for the Treatment of Oculomotor Paresis.

The symptoms of two patients improved and an increase of muscle cross-sectional area was observed, however, it is necessary to be prudent when employing intramuscular bupivacaine in oculomotor paresis treatment until there are more and larger studies.

The effects of bupivacaine injection and oral nitric oxide on extraocular muscle in the rabbit

Bupivacaine injection increased the EOM tension in rabbits to some extent and NO augmented the effect of bupivacaines, and the enlargement of the muscle fibers after bupavicaine injection was shown histopathopathically.

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