Bupivacaine inhibits activation of neuronal spinal extracellular receptor-activated kinase through selective effects on ionotropic receptors.


BACKGROUND Central terminals of primary nociceptors release neurotransmitters glutamate and substance P, which bind to ionotropic or metabotropic receptors on spinal neurons to induce cellular responses. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases are activated by these receptors and are important modulators of pain at the dorsal horn. The authors investigated… (More)


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