Bumblebees minimize control challenges by combining active and passive modes in unsteady winds

@article{Ravi2016BumblebeesMC,
  title={Bumblebees minimize control challenges by combining active and passive modes in unsteady winds},
  author={Sridhar Ravi and Dmitry Kolomenskiy and Thomas Engels and Kai Schneider and Chun Wang and J{\"o}rn Sesterhenn and Hao Liu},
  journal={Scientific Reports},
  year={2016},
  volume={6}
}
The natural wind environment that volant insects encounter is unsteady and highly complex, posing significant flight-control and stability challenges. It is critical to understand the strategies insects employ to safely navigate in natural environments. We combined experiments on free flying bumblebees with high-fidelity numerical simulations and lower-order modeling to identify the mechanics that mediate insect flight in unsteady winds. We trained bumblebees to fly upwind towards an artificial… 

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