Building the Microtubule Cytoskeleton Piece by Piece*

@article{AlfaroAco2015BuildingTM,
  title={Building the Microtubule Cytoskeleton Piece by Piece*},
  author={Raymundo Alfaro-Aco and Sabine Petry},
  journal={The Journal of Biological Chemistry},
  year={2015},
  volume={290},
  pages={17154 - 17162}
}
The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton gives cells their shape, organizes the cellular interior, and segregates chromosomes. These functions rely on the precise arrangement of MTs, which is achieved by the coordinated action of MT-associated proteins (MAPs). We highlight the first and most important examples of how different MAP activities are combined in vitro to create an ensemble function that exceeds the simple addition of their individual activities, and how the Xenopus laevis egg extract… 

Figures from this paper

Custom complex 3D microtubule networks for experimentation and engineering

TLDR
This work combined two well-established technologies: holographic optical trapping and ordinary optical trapping with a capability for fast repositioning in the field of view in one experimental setup to build and probe (in vitro) microtubule structures that mimic the natural 3D cytoskeleton.

In Vitro Reconstitution Assays of Microtubule Amplification and Lattice Repair by the Microtubule-Severing Enzymes Katanin and Spastin.

Microtubules are non-covalent dynamic polymers essential for the life of all eukaryotic cells. Their dynamic behavior is regulated by a large array of cellular effectors. In vitro microtubule assays

Soft mechano-chemistry of molecular hubs in mitotic spindle: biomechanics and mechanical proofreading at microtubule ends

TLDR
The stability of cross-linked antiparallel MTs is shown to decrease monotonically with increasing tension, a characteristic of all ‘slip-bonds’, in sharp contrast to the nonmonotonic variation of the mean lifetime with tension, an mechanical fingerprint of ‘catch-b bonds’ displayed by the MTs tethered to two distinct binding partners.

Near-atomic cryo-EM structure of PRC1 bound to the microtubule

Significance PRC1 (protein regulator of cytokinesis 1) is critical to cellular architecture through its interaction with microtubules to form antiparallel microtubule arrays, like those in the

Mini Spindles TOG1 Maintains Microtubule Polymerization Rates and Mitotic Spindle Formation

TLDR
Investigating TOG1’s role in promoting MT polymerization and mitotic spindle formation using the Drosophila melanogaster XMAP215 family member Mini Spindles as a model leads to a more comprehensive model of how distinct TOG domains contribute to XMAP 215 function.

Inhibition of ectopic microtubule assembly by the kinesin-13 KLP-7 prevents chromosome segregation and cytokinesis defects in oocytes

TLDR
Using quantitative in vitro and in vivo functional assays in the C. elegans oocyte, novel evidence is provided that the kinesin-13 KLP-7 promotes destabilization of the whole cellular microtubule network, highlighting a key role for kinesIn-13 proteins when centrosome activity is defective or absent.

Behaviors of individual microtubules and microtubule populations relative to critical concentrations: dynamic instability occurs when critical concentrations are driven apart by nucleotide hydrolysis

TLDR
This work uses previously established simulations to confirm that MTs have (at least) two experimentally relevant CCs and to clarify the behavior of individuals and populations relative to the CCs, demonstrating that most experimental CC measurements correspond to CCNetAssembly.

Title Reversible Morphological Control of Tubulin-EncapsulatingGiant Liposomes by Hydrostatic Pressure

TLDR
Results demonstrate that the elongation and shortening of protrusions of giant liposomes is repeatedly controllable by regulating the polymerization state of microtubules (MTs) within them by applying and releasing hydrostatic pressure.

Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in microtubule cytoskeletal dynamics and spermatogenesis.

TLDR
The importance of toxicant/pharmaceutical models in unravelling the biology of MT dynamics, in particular the role of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), a family of regulatory proteins that modulate MT dynamics but also actin- and intermediate filament-based cytoskeletons are illustrated.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 103 REFERENCES

Microtubule organization in vitro.

Microtubule-depolymerizing kinesins.

The microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton supports a broad range of cellular functions, from providing tracks for intracellular transport, to supporting movement of cilia and flagella, to segregating

Self-organisation and forces in the microtubule cytoskeleton.

Cytoplasmic dynein.

  • V. Allan
  • Biology
    Biochemical Society transactions
  • 2011
TLDR
Recent progress on understanding dynein's mechanochemistry, how it is regulated and how it binds to such a plethora of cargoes are reviewed.

Microtubule polymerases and depolymerases.

Tracking the ends: a dynamic protein network controls the fate of microtubule tips

Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are a diverse group of evolutionarily conserved cellular factors that accumulate at the ends of growing microtubules. They form dynamic networks through

A Microtubule Interactome: Complexes with Roles in Cell Cycle and Mitosis

TLDR
This study uses a MT cosedimentation assay, combined with 1D and 2D PAGE and mass spectrometry, to identify over 250 MAPs from early Drosophila embryos and identifies new MAPs, many of which appear to be important in cell division.

Microtubule-organizing centres: a re-evaluation

TLDR
Recent evidence indicating that γ-tubulin-dependent formation of new microtubules is not restricted to conventional microtubule-organizing centres is discussed, suggesting that the spatio-temporal control of microtubULE nucleation is more complex than previously thought.
...