Building an Inner Sanctuary: Complex PTSD in Chimpanzees

@article{Bradshaw2008BuildingAI,
  title={Building an Inner Sanctuary: Complex PTSD in Chimpanzees},
  author={Gay A. Bradshaw and Theodora Capaldo and Lorin Lindner and Gloria Grow},
  journal={Journal of Trauma \& Dissociation},
  year={2008},
  volume={9},
  pages={34 - 9}
}
ABSTRACT Through the analysis of case studies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in residence at a sanctuary, who previously sustained prolonged captivity and biomedical experimentation, we illustrate how human psychological models of diagnosis and treatment might be approached in great apes. This study reflects growing attention to ethical, scientific, and practical problems associated with psychological well-being of animals. The analysis concludes that a diagnosis of Complex PTSD… 
Psychological Distress in Chimpanzees Rescued From Laboratories
TLDR
This analysis qualitatively analyzed symptoms of psychological distress in a sample of 253 chimpanzees rescued from biomedical research now residing at an accredited chimpanzee sanctuary and includes an illustrative case study of one rescued chimpanzee who engages in self-injurious behaviors and meets modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder.
Comparative Psychopathology: Connecting Comparative and Clinical Psychology
Author(s): Maple, Terry L.; Segura, Valerie D. | Abstract: The animal welfare movement was empowered by decades of animal studies focused on the ontogeny of psychopathology in non-human primates and
Signs of generalized anxiety and compulsive disorders in chimpanzees
Abstract Fear and anxiety have been studied extensively in humans and other animals. However, far less attention has been focused on the clinical and ethical implications of nonhuman animals'
REVIEW: PSYCHOPATHOLOGIES IN CAPTIVE NONHUMAN PRIMATES AND APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
TLDR
This review aims to raise awareness among the veterinary community of the wealth of literature on NHP psychopathologies in human medicine and anthropology literature and calls for the necessity to include mental health assessments and professionally structured treatment approaches in NHP medicine.
Signs of Mood and Anxiety Disorders in Chimpanzees
TLDR
Chimpanzees display behavioral clusters similar to PTSD and depression in their key diagnostic criteria, underscoring the importance of ethical considerations regarding the use of chimpanzees in experimentation and other captive settings.
A Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Model of Triarchic Psychopathy Constructs
TLDR
Findings provide support for a chimpanzee model of core dispositions relevant to psychopathy and other forms of psychopathology.
Personality in Sanctuary-Housed Chimpanzees: A Comparative Approach of Psychobiological and Penta-Factorial Human Models
  • Y. Úbeda, M. Llorente
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Evolutionary psychology : an international journal of evolutionary approaches to psychology and behavior
  • 2015
TLDR
Both models are sensitive enough to evaluate the personality of a group of chimpanzees housed in a sanctuary, but due to its brevity, the PEN may be more suitable for assessing personality in a Sanctuary, where employees do not have much time to devote to the evaluation process.
Developmental context effects on bicultural posttrauma self repair in chimpanzees.
TLDR
The role of self in posttrauma repair of chimpanzees who had been differentially reared by humans during neuroethologically formative periods and subsequently used as biomedical subjects is examined and results show that variations in post Trauma schema correlate with early socialization patterns.
Parallels in Sources of Trauma, Pain, Distress, and Suffering in Humans and Nonhuman Animals
  • H. Ferdowsian, Debra L. Merskin
  • Medicine
    Journal of trauma & dissociation : the official journal of the International Society for the Study of Dissociation
  • 2012
TLDR
This work explores parallels between human experiences of pain and psychological distress and those of animals based on shared brain structures and physiological mechanisms, and identifies parallels between established traumatic conditions for humans and existing laboratory conditions for animals.
A preliminary investigation on the evaluation of psychopathologies in a group of ex-pet and ex-performer chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A rating approach based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
Abstract The diagnosis of psychopathologies in nonhuman primates has received increasing interest in the last decade. However, only a limited number of categories of pathology have been diagnosed in
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 68 REFERENCES
Psychopathology in great apes: Concepts, treatment options and possible homologies to human psychiatric disorders
TLDR
The need to expand research into ape psychopathology is proposed, which would require an essentially interdisciplinary approach of primatology and psychiatry, ultimately to the benefit of both.
Rehabilitation of research chimpanzees: Stress and coping after long-term isolation
TLDR
It is indicated that chimpanzees can recover from severe social deprivation, and may experience resocialization as less stressful than solitary housing.
Making sense of behavioral irregularities of great apes
  • H. Fabrega,
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 2006
TLDR
The authors' synthesis of literature and their analysis of the implications of higher ape psychopathology represent an epistemically compelling account that broadens the scope of the comparative study of behavioral irregularities, a topic that provides a different slant for examining challenging questions in evolutionary biology and primatology.
A preliminary investigation of the construct of psychopathic personality (psychopathy) in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).
TLDR
Findings suggest that the psychopathy construct may be relevant to chimpanzees, and further validation of the CPM is needed.
Disorders of extreme stress: The empirical foundation of a complex adaptation to trauma.
TLDR
Children and adults exposed to chronic interpersonal trauma consistently demonstrate psychological disturbances that are not captured in the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis, and these data invite further exploration of what constitutes effective treatment of the full spectrum of posttraumatic psychopathology.
Mechanisms of change in dialectical behavior therapy: theoretical and empirical observations.
TLDR
The primary purpose of this article is to address a variety of potential mechanisms of change that may be associated with those aspects of DBT that are unique to the treatment and its theoretical underpinnings.
How Elephants are Opening Doors: Developmental Neuroethology, Attachment and Social Context
Ethology’s renewed interest in developmental context coincides with recent insights from neurobiology and psychology on early attachment. Attachment and social learning are understood as fundamental
Variables influencing the origins of diverse abnormal behaviors in a large sample of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
TLDR
The association of some abnormal behaviors with mother‐rearing suggests that some form of social learning may be involved in the origin of some of these behavior patterns.
Any animal whatever. Darwinian building blocks of morality in monkeys and apes
To what degree has biology influenced and shaped the development of moral systems? One way to determine the extent to which human moral systems might be the product of natural selection is to explore
Beyond the ‘New Cross-cultural Psychiatry’: Cultural Biology, Discursive Psychology and the Ironies of Globalization
  • L. Kirmayer
  • Sociology, Medicine
    Transcultural psychiatry
  • 2006
The ‘new cross-cultural psychiatry’ heralded by Kleinman in 1977 promised a revitalized tradition that gave due respect to cultural difference and did not export psychiatric theories that were
...
1
2
3
4
5
...