Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year odyssey.

@article{Locke2002BuildingAP,
  title={Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation. A 35-year odyssey.},
  author={Edwin A. Locke and Gary P. Latham},
  journal={The American psychologist},
  year={2002},
  volume={57 9},
  pages={
          705-17
        }
}
The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validity and practical significance of goal-setting theory are explained, and new directions in goal-setting research are discussed. The relationships of goal setting to other theories are described as are… Expand

Figures from this paper

New Directions in Goal-Setting Theory
Goal-setting theory is summarized regarding the effectiveness of specific, difficult goals; the relationship of goals to affect; the mediators of goal effects; the relation of goals to self-efficacy;Expand
An Examination of Goal-Setting Theory Research and Performance
Along with social cognitive and organizational justice theories, goal-setting theory is one of the most significant approaches to work motivation within the last 30 years (Latham & Pinder, 2005).Expand
Is Public Service Motivation Changeable? Integrative Modeling with Goal-Setting Theory
ABSTRACT This study proposes that Public Service Motivation (PSM) can be changeable by unique characteristics of public organization. The proposition is applied for the integration between PSM theoryExpand
Goal setting: A possible theoretical framework for examining the effect of priming goals on organizational behavior.
Goals can be set consciously or they can be primed. Both goal setting theory [ 3•• , 4 ] and the automaticity model [ 7 ] provide frameworks for doing one versus the other. The present paperExpand
New Directions in Goal-Setting
Goal-setting theory is summarized regarding theeffectivenessof specific, difficultgoals; the relationship of goals to affect; the mediators of goal effects; the relation of goals to self-efficacy;Expand
Work Motivation: Directing, Energizing, and Maintaining Effort (and Research)
This chapter provides an overview of contemporary research on work motivation. We start by identifying the central premises, controversies, and unanswered questions related to five core theoreticalExpand
Setting Goals and Taking Ownership
The purpose of this theoretical article is to explore the psychological processes underlying employee participation in goal setting. Specifically, it presents a conceptual model that attempts toExpand
New developments in and directions for goal-setting research.
Abstract. Goal setting is an “open” theory built on inductive findings from empirical research. The present paper briefly summarizes this theory. Emphasis is then given to findings that have beenExpand
The Effects of Goal Origin and Implementation Intentions on Goal Commitment, Effort, and Performance
ABSTRACT Self-set goals, selected by students for themselves, have known motivational benefits leading to increased autonomy and intrinsic motivation. In spite of the motivational benefits, studentsExpand
Developing a Conceptual Framework of Employee Well-Being (EWB) by Applying Goal Concepts and Findings from Personality-Social Psychology
This paper reports an attempt to develop a foundation of a theory of employee well-being (EWB) by borrowing concepts and findings from research in personality-social psychology. The proposedExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 157 REFERENCES
The role of goal acceptance in goal setting and task performance.
  • M. Erez, F. H. Kanfer
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Academy of management review. Academy of Management
  • 1983
TLDR
It is shown how workers' acceptance of goals can be influenced at various stages of the progression from goal setting to goal attainment. Expand
Goal commitment and the goal-setting process: conceptual clarification and empirical synthesis.
TLDR
This meta-analysis, based on 83 independent samples, updates the goal commitment literature by summarizing the accumulated evidence on the antecedents and consequences of goal commitment and identifies key areas for future research. Expand
Importance of participative goal setting and anticipated rewards on goal difficulty and job performance.
Engineers/scientists (n = 76) either participated in the setting of, or were assigned, specific behavioral goals during their performance appraisal. Participative goal setting resulted in moreExpand
The Joint Effects of Target and Purpose Goals on Intrinsic Motivation: A Mediational Analysis
To test Harackiewicz and Sansone's prediction that task-specific target goals would enhance intrinsic motivation when they were congruent with higher order purpose goals, we varied performance andExpand
Using self-efficacy theory to resolve the conflict between goal-setting theory and expectancy theory in organizational behavior and industrial/organizational psychology.
Two influential theories in organizational behavior and industrial/organizational psychology, goal-setting theory and expectancy theory, are summarized briefly. It is shown that these two theoriesExpand
The Construct of Goal Commitment: Measurement And Relationships with Task Performance
Among the most robust findings in the behavioral science literature is that setting a specific, difficult goal leads to higher performance than urging individuals to “do their best” (Latham & Locke,Expand
The Impact of Participation on Goal Acceptance and Performance: A Two-Step Model
TLDR
The findings support the two-step model and offer an explanation as to why previous research has failed to differentiate empirically between participative and assigned goal setting. Expand
Explaining the Assigned Goal-Incentive Interaction: The Role of Self-Efficacy and Personal Goals
This study was designed to replicate conceptually and to explain the goal-level vs. incentive-type interaction reported by Mowen, Middlemist, and Luther (1981) based on goal setting and socialExpand
INTERRELATIONSHIPS AMONG EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION, INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, GOAL DIFFICULTY, GOAL ACCEPTANCE, GOAL INSTRUMENTALITY, AND PERFORMANCE
A field study was conducted with 41 female typists in a large corporation to test an explanatory model of goal setting. Weekly productivity goals were either assigned by the supervisors or were setExpand
Goal setting as a means of increasing motivation.
TLDR
The study discovered that there was a significant increase in performance when individuals had goals and a significant decline in performance in the “do your best” group. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...