Building Ventilation as an Effective Disease Intervention Strategy in a Dense Indoor Contact Network in an Ideal City

@article{Gao2016BuildingVA,
  title={Building Ventilation as an Effective Disease Intervention Strategy in a Dense Indoor Contact Network in an Ideal City},
  author={Xiaolei Gao and Jianjian Wei and Hao Lei and Pengcheng Xu and Benjamin John Cowling and Yuguo Li},
  journal={PLoS ONE},
  year={2016},
  volume={11}
}
Emerging diseases may spread rapidly through dense and large urban contact networks, especially they are transmitted by the airborne route, before new vaccines can be made available. Airborne diseases may spread rapidly as people visit different indoor environments and are in frequent contact with others. We constructed a simple indoor contact model for an ideal city with 7 million people and 3 million indoor spaces, and estimated the probability and duration of contact between any two… 

Tables from this paper

Control of airborne infectious disease in buildings: Evidence and research priorities.
TLDR
An overarching need for investment to implement building controls is identified and their effectiveness on infection in well-characterized and real-world settings is evaluated, supported by specific, methodological advances.
Ventilation control for airborne transmission of human exhaled bio-aerosols in buildings.
TLDR
This review updates current knowledge of the airborne transmission of pathogens and the improvement of ventilation efficiency concerning the infection prevention.
Indoor transmission of SARS-CoV-2
TLDR
All identified outbreaks of three or more cases occurred in an indoor environment, which confirms that sharing indoor space is a major SARS-CoV-2 infection risk.
The multi-dimensional challenges of controlling SARS-CoV-2 transmission in indoor spaces: Insights from the linkage of a microscopic pedestrian simulation and virus transmission models
TLDR
A world-wide unique combined Pedestrian Dynamics - Virus Spread model (PeDViS model), which combines insights from pedestrian modelling, epidemiology, and IT-design is developed, which illustrates the stark increase in exposure at shorter distances, as well as longer contact durations.
A Sanitation Argument for Clean Indoor Air: Meeting a Requisite for Safe Public Spaces
TLDR
It is argued for the sanitation of air under the domain of public health environmental engineering, and echo the calls for a necessary paradigm shift via measures such as ventilation and filtration.
Extended short-range airborne transmission of respiratory infections
Multi-route respiratory infection: When a transmission route may dominate
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 98 REFERENCES
Ventilation Control of Indoor Transmission of Airborne Diseases in an Urban Community
TLDR
It is concluded that the engineering intervention methods such as building ventilation can be as effective as public health interventions and the ventilation rates specified in the existing standards such as ASHRAE 62 may be too low for the purpose of preventing or controlling airborne infectious diseases in indoor environments.
Risk of indoor airborne infection transmission estimated from carbon dioxide concentration.
TLDR
There is likely to be an achievable critical rebreathed fraction of indoor air below which airborne propagation of common respiratory infections and influenza will not occur and this work derives a non-steady-state version of the Wells-Riley equation which is especially useful in poorly ventilated environments.
Modelling disease outbreaks in realistic urban social networks
TLDR
The results suggest that outbreaks can be contained by a strategy of targeted vaccination combined with early detection without resorting to mass vaccination of a population.
Predictive models of control strategies involved in containing indoor airborne infections.
TLDR
The analysis indicates that effective isolation of symptomatic patients with low-efficacy contact tracing is sufficient to control a SARS outbreak and suggests that a valuable added dimension to public health inventions could be provided by systematically quantifying transmissibility and proportion of asymptomatic infection of indoor airborne infection.
The transmission of tuberculosis in confined spaces: an analytical review of alternative epidemiological models.
TLDR
Gammiatoni and Nucci's generalised formulation is shown to be the most suitable for modelling airborne transmission in ventilated spaces and it is subsequently used in a parametric study to evaluate the effect of physical and environmental factors on the rate of disease transmission.
Role of ventilation in airborne transmission of infectious agents in the built environment - a multidisciplinary systematic review.
TLDR
A strong need is revealed for a multidisciplinary study in investigating disease outbreaks, and the impact of indoor air environments on the spread of airborne infectious diseases.
Using data on social contacts to estimate age-specific transmission parameters for respiratory-spread infectious agents.
TLDR
The estimated age-specific transmission parameters suggested that school-aged children and young adults will experience the highest incidence of infection and will contribute most to further spread of infections during the initial phase of an emerging respiratory-spread epidemic in a completely susceptible population.
Social Contacts and Mixing Patterns Relevant to the Spread of Infectious Diseases
TLDR
This study provides the first large-scale quantitative approach to contact patterns relevant for infections transmitted by the respiratory or close-contact route, and the results should lead to improved parameterisation of mathematical models used to design control strategies.
...
...