Building Brains: Neural Chimeras in the Study of Nervous System Development and Repair

@article{Brstle1999BuildingBN,
  title={Building Brains: Neural Chimeras in the Study of Nervous System Development and Repair},
  author={Oliver Br{\"u}stle},
  journal={Brain Pathology},
  year={1999},
  volume={9}
}
The ability to isolate multipotential neuroepithelial precursor cells from the mammalian nervous system provides exciting perspectives for the in vitro analysis of early nervous system development and the generation of donor cells for neural repair. New models are needed to study the properties of these cells in vivo. Neural chimeras have revealed a remarkable degree of plasticity in the developmental potential of neuroepithelial precursor cells. Following transplantation into the cerebral… 
Gliogenesis in the central nervous system
TLDR
Gliogenesis, glial stem cells, putative relationships of these cells to each other, factors implicated in gliogenesis, and therapeutic applications of glial precursors are discussed.
Neural stem cells
TLDR
There is now increasing knowledge of the factors controlling the division and differentiation of NSCs during normal brain development, and the potential for stem cells to be used in cell replacement therapy for brain injury or degenerative brain diseases with a particular emphasis on cerebral ischaemia and Parkinson's disease.
Integration and differentiation of neural stem cells after transplantation into the dysmyelinated central nervous system of adult mice
TLDR
Results suggest that intraparenchymal transplantation of NSCs might be a strategy to reconstruct myelin in dysmyelinated adult brains.
Human embryonic stem cell‐derived neural precursors develop into neurons and integrate into the host brain
TLDR
After transplantation into the ventricles of neonatal immune‐deficient mice, hES‐cell‐derived neural precursors differentiated into neurons and then glia in a temporal course intrinsic to that of human cells regardless of location.
Perinatal applications of neural stem cells.
  • N. Kennea, H. Mehmet
  • Biology, Medicine
    Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology
  • 2004
Basic and clinical neuroscience applications of embryonic stem cells
TLDR
Experimental observations suggest that neurodegenerative disease pathology may involve alterations in a range of progressive neural inductive and neurodevelopmental events through novel biological mechanisms that result in sublethal impairments in cellular homeostasis within evolving regional neuronal precursor populations containing the mutant proteins.
Formation of myelin after transplantation of neural precursor cells into the retina of young postnatal mice
TLDR
The presence of high numbers of oligodendrocytes and their location close to the retinal nerve fiber layer suggest that the differentiation of transplanted neural precursors into distinct neural cell types is influenced by host‐derived environmental cues.
Behavior and Differentiation of the Neural Stem Cells in vivo
TLDR
Similar behavior of the rat and human neural stem cells in the microenvironment of the recipient adult rat brain and the absence of immune reaction suggest that the transplantation into the rat brain may serve as a model for studying the developmental biology of the human stem cells.
Differentiation and tropic/trophic effects of exogenous neural precursors in the adult spinal cord
TLDR
The results show that NSCs might not only play a critical supportive role in repairing axonal injury in the adult spinal cord but also can be used as probes for exploring the molecular underpinnings of the regenerative potential of the mature nervous system after injury.
Oligodendrocytes and stem cell transplantation: their potential in the treatment of leukoencephalopathies
  • I. Duncan
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
  • 2005
TLDR
Cell transplantation is being extensively explored as a means of treating many human degenerative diseases, and it appears certain that either of these two sources will eventually give rise to sufficient numbers of neural stem cells or oligodendrocyte progenitors that have greater capacity for repair than such cells derived from the adult brain.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 165 REFERENCES
In vitro-generated neural precursors participate in mammalian brain development.
TLDR
Observations indicate that entirely in vitro-generated neural precursors are able to respond to environmental signals guiding cell migration and differentiation and have the potential to reconstitute neuronal and glial lineages in the central nervous system.
Is there a neural stem cell in the mammalian forebrain?
The use of cell lines in neurobiology
Neuronal progenitors as tools for cell replacement in the nervous system
Engraftable human neural stem cells respond to development cues, replace neurons, and express foreign genes
TLDR
Cryopreservable human NSCs may be propagated by both epigenetic and genetic means that are comparably safe and effective, and may allow the development of NSC transplantation for a range of disorders.
Chimeric brains generated by intraventricular transplantation of fetal human brain cells into embryonic rats
TLDR
This work has generated neural chimeras composed of human and rodent cells that provide a unique model to study human neural cell migration and differentiation in a functional nervous system.
A self-renewing multipotential stem cell in embryonic rat cerebral cortex
TLDR
It is suggested that multipotential stem cells may be the ancestors of other cortical progenitor cells that exhibit more limited proliferation and more restricted repertoires of progeny fates.
Neural progenitor cell engraftment corrects lysosomal storage throughout the MRS VII mouse brain
TLDR
By transplanting β-glucuronidase-expressing neural progenitors into the cerebral ventricles of newborn mice, donor cells engrafted throughout the neuraxis, resulting in widespread correction of lysosomal storage in neurons and glia in affected mice.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...