Bubbles, gating, and anesthetics in ion channels.

@article{Roth2008BubblesGA,
  title={Bubbles, gating, and anesthetics in ion channels.},
  author={Roland Roth and Dirk Gillespie and Wolfgang Nonner and Robert E Eisenberg},
  journal={Biophysical journal},
  year={2008},
  volume={94 11},
  pages={
          4282-98
        }
}
We suggest that bubbles are the bistable hydrophobic gates responsible for the on-off transitions of single channel currents. In this view, many types of channels gate by the same physical mechanism-dewetting by capillary evaporation-but different types of channels use different sensors to modulate hydrophobic properties of the channel wall and thereby trigger and control bubbles and gating. Spontaneous emptying of channels has been seen in many simulations. Because of the physics involved… 
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