Brown algal morphogenesis: atomic force microscopy as a tool to study the role of mechanical forces

@article{Tesson2014BrownAM,
  title={Brown algal morphogenesis: atomic force microscopy as a tool to study the role of mechanical forces},
  author={Beno{\^i}t Tesson and B{\'e}n{\'e}dicte Charrier},
  journal={Frontiers in Plant Science},
  year={2014},
  volume={5}
}
Over the last few years, a growing interest has been directed toward the use of macroalgae as a source of energy, food and molecules for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Besides this, macroalgal development remains poorly understood compared to other multicellular organisms. Brown algae (Phaeophyceae) form a monophyletic lineage of usually large multicellular algae which evolved independently from land plants. In their environment, they are subjected to strong mechanical forces… 

Figures from this paper

Biophysical and cellular mechanisms of tip-growth in the brown alga Ectocarpus sp.

The results obtained during this PhD demonstrate that the biophysical mechanism of TG in Ectocarpus is radically different from that found in land plants and fungi, and pave the way for uncovering the molecular pathways that regulate TG in this group, and thus for future promising evo-devo studies of this particular mode of cellular morphogenesis.

Brown algal cell walls and development.

The brown algal mode of tip growth: Keeping stress under control

A series of quantitative measurements at the cellular level and a biophysical simulation approach are used to show that the brown alga Ectocarpus has an original tip-growth mechanism, and the establishment of a steep gradient in cell wall thickness can compensate for the variation in tip curvature.

Morphoelasticity in the development of brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus: from cell rounding to branching

A biomechanical model is proposed for the growth of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus that recovers the morphogenetic transformations of mature cells: transformation of a cylindrical shape into spherical shape with a volumetric increase, and then lateral branching.

Alginates along the filament of the brown alga Ectocarpus help cells cope with stress

Results support that both M-rich and G-rich alginates play similar roles in stiffening the cell wall where the tensile stress is high and exposes cells to bursting, and that these roles are independent from cell growth and differentiation.

Identification of Genes under Positive Selection Reveals Differences in Evolutionary Adaptation between Brown-Algal Species

Analysis of orthologs of model brown algal species Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica supports the suggestion that selection largely acts on different sets of genes in both marcoalgal species, potentially reflecting their adaptation to different ecological niches.

β-1,3-Glucans are components of brown seaweed (Phaeophyceae) cell walls

β-(1,3)-glucans are structural polysaccharides of F. vesiculosus cell walls and are integral components of the sieve plates in these brown seaweeds, reminiscent of plant callose.

Effective production of fermentable sugars from brown macroalgae biomass

This review provides a comprehensive perspective of the efficient utilization of brown macroalgae as renewable resources for the production of biofuels and chemicals, as well as high-value health-benefiting functional oligosaccharides and sugars.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 134 REFERENCES

Cell wall architecture of Physcomitrella patens is revealed by atomic force microscopy

Conventional staining and light microscopy were used to provide the first direct evidence that protonemal cells of P. patens lack a cuticle, and detailed surface structures identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Extensive and Intimate Association of the Cytoskeleton with Forming Silica in Diatoms: Control over Patterning on the Meso- and Micro-Scale

The results reveal the importance of top down control over positioning of and within the SDV during diatom wall formation and open a new perspective for the study of the mechanism of frustule patterning as well as for the understanding of the control of membrane dynamics by the cytoskeleton.

F‐actin cytoskeleton and cell wall morphogenesis in brown algae

The mechanics behind plant development.

This review will discuss issues focusing on the shoot apical meristem, a population of stem cells that is responsible for the initiation of the aerial organs of the plant, using quantitative live imaging and computational models based on analogies with continuum mechanics systems.

Cytoskeleton and morphogenesis in brown algae.

MTs and AFs are implicated in brown algal cell morphogenesis, expressed in their relationship with cell wall Morphogenesis, polarization, spindle organization and cytokinetic mechanism.

Shrinking the hammer: micromechanical approaches to morphogenesis.

Different micromechanical approaches to quantify, at cellular resolution, the properties of the main structural element in plants, the cell wall are reviewed, with a critical assessment of their strengths and weaknesses, and a discussion of how they can help to understand the regulation of growth and morphogenesis.

In vivo analysis of local wall stiffness at the shoot apical meristem in Arabidopsis using atomic force microscopy.

Results demonstrate the existence of a multiscale spatialization of the mechanical properties of the meristem surface, in addition to the previously established molecular and cytological zonation of the SAM, correlating with regional growth rate distribution.

Mechanical properties of epidermal cells of whole living roots of Arabidopsis thaliana: an atomic force microscopy study.

In this study, the inherent surface mechanical properties of living Arabidopsis thaliana whole-root epidermal cells were studied at the nanoscale using the technique of atomic force microscopy (AFM).

The role of mechanical forces in plant morphogenesis.

The mechanical basis of shape changes in plants is presented, focusing on undifferentiated tissues, and how can growth be translated into a quantified geometrical output is discussed.
...