Brown Clouds over South Asia: Biomass or Fossil Fuel Combustion?

@article{Gustafsson2009BrownCO,
  title={Brown Clouds over South Asia: Biomass or Fossil Fuel Combustion?},
  author={Orjan Gustafsson and Martin Krus{\aa} and Zdenek Zencak and Rebecca J. Sheesley and Lennart Granat and Erik Engstr{\"o}m and Puppala S. Praveen and P. S. Prakasa Rao and Caroline Leck and Henning Rodhe},
  journal={Science},
  year={2009},
  volume={323},
  pages={495 - 498}
}
Carbonaceous aerosols cause strong atmospheric heating and large surface cooling that is as important to South Asian climate forcing as greenhouse gases, yet the aerosol sources are poorly understood. Emission inventory models suggest that biofuel burning accounts for 50 to 90% of emissions, whereas the elemental composition of ambient aerosols points to fossil fuel combustion. We used radiocarbon measurements of winter monsoon aerosols from western India and the Indian Ocean to determine that… 
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