Broken-axisymmetry phase of a spin-1 ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate

@article{Murata2007BrokenaxisymmetryPO,
  title={Broken-axisymmetry phase of a spin-1 ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate},
  author={Keiji Murata and Hiroki Saito and Masahito Ueda},
  journal={Physical Review A},
  year={2007},
  volume={75},
  pages={013607}
}
A spin-1 ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a certain magnetic field exhibits a broken-axisymmetry phase in which the magnetization tilts against the applied magnetic field due to the competition between ferromagnetism and linear and quadratic Zeeman effects. The Bogoliubov analysis shows that in this phase two Goldstone modes associated with U(1) and SO(2) symmetry breakings exist, in which phonons and magnons are coupled to restore the two broken symmetries. 

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