Broken Symmetries and the Masses of Gauge Bosons

  title={Broken Symmetries and the Masses of Gauge Bosons},
  author={P. W. Higgs},
  journal={Physical Review Letters},
  • P. W. Higgs
  • Published 1964
  • Physics
  • Physical Review Letters
In a recent note' it was shown that the Goldstone theorem, ' that Lorentz-covaria. nt field theories in which spontaneous breakdown of symmetry under an internal Lie group occurs contain zero-mass particles, fails if and only if the conserved currents associated with the internal group are coupled to gauge fields. The purpose of the present note is to report that, as a consequence of this coupling, the spin-one quanta of some of the gauge fields acquire mass; the longitudinal degrees of freedom… Expand
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