Broadband observations of the naked-eye γ-ray burst GRB 080319B

  title={Broadband observations of the naked-eye $\gamma$-ray burst GRB 080319B},
  author={Judith Racusin and Sergei V. Karpov and Marek Sokołowski and Jonathan Granot and X. F. Wu and Valentin D. Pal'shin and Stefano Covino and A. van der Horst and S. R. Oates and Patricia Schady and Randy J. Smith and Jay R. Cummings and Rhaana L. C. Starling and Lech Wiktor Piotrowski and B. Zhang and P. A. Evans and Stephen T. Holland and Katarzyna Małek and M. T. Page and L. Vetere and Raffaella Margutti and C. Guidorzi and Atish Kamble and Peter A. Curran and A P Beardmore and Chryssa Kouveliotou and Lech Mankiewicz and A Melandri and P. T. O’Brien and Kim L Page and Tsvi Piran and Nial R. Tanvir and Grzegorz Wrochna and Rafail L. Aptekar and Scott Douglas Barthelmy and Corrado Bartolini and Grigory Beskin and Sergey Bondar and Malcolm N. Bremer and Sergio Campana and Alberto J. Castro-Tirado and Antonino Cucchiara and Mikołaj {\'C}wiok and Paolo D’Avanzo and V. D’Elia and Massimo Della Valle and Antonio de Ugarte Postigo and Wojciech A. Dominik and Abraham D. Falcone and Fabrizio Fiore and Derek B. Fox and Dmitry D. Frederiks and A. S. Fruchter and Dino Fugazza and Michael A. Garrett and Neil A. Gehrels and Sergey Golenetskii and A Gomboc and Javier Gorosabel and Giuseppe Greco and Adriano Guarnieri and Stefan Immler and Martin Jel{\'i}nek and Grzegorz Kasprowicz and Valentina La Parola and Andrew J. Levan and Vanessa Mangano and E. P. Mazets and Emilio Molinari and Alberto Moretti and Krzysztof Nawrocki and P. Oleynik and J. P. Osborne and Claudio Pagani and Shashi Bhushan Pandey and Zsolt Paragi and Matteo Perri and Adalberto Piccioni and Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz and P. W. A. Roming and Iain A. Steele and Richard G. Strom and Vincenzo Testa and Gino Tosti and Mikhail Ulanov and K. Wiersema and Ramj Wijers and Jack M. Winters and Aleksander Filip Żarnecki and F. Zerbi and P{\'e}ter M{\'e}sz{\'a}ros and Guido L. Chincarini and David N. Burrows},
Long-duration γ-ray bursts (GRBs) release copious amounts of energy across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and so provide a window into the process of black hole formation from the collapse of massive stars. Previous early optical observations of even the most exceptional GRBs (990123 and 030329) lacked both the temporal resolution to probe the optical flash in detail and the accuracy needed to trace the transition from the prompt emission within the outflow to external shocks caused by… Expand

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