Bringing life to dead: Role of Wayback Machine in retrieving vanished URLs

  title={Bringing life to dead: Role of Wayback Machine in retrieving vanished URLs},
  author={B. T. Sampath Kumar and K. R. Prithviraj},
  journal={Journal of Information Science},
  pages={71 - 81}
The paper makes an attempt to examine the decay and half-life of URL citations cited in articles of conference proceedings. The main focus of the paper is to explore the possibilities of recovering inactive URL citations through the Wayback Machine. The study collected a total of 5698 URLs cited in the 1700 articles published in three Indian LIS conference proceedings published during 2001–2010. Results of the study show that only 49.91% (2844 out of 5698) of URL citations remained active… 
5 Citations

Figures and Tables from this paper

Web citation analysis of Library and Information Science and Communication and Media Studies journals : A comparative study
The present study examines the availability of web citations in scholarly journals of Library and Information Science and Communication and Media Studies. The journals were selected based on their
The Wayback Machine: notes on a re-enchantment
It is argued that the metaphors the authors use actually obfuscate, rather than merely describe, the operations of the Machine, and the article draws attention to, and thus counteracts, this obfuscation.
Web archiving of indigenous knowledge systems in South Africa
The purpose of the paper was to highlight the digitization of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) in institutional repositories in South Africa with a view to develop a framework for Web archiving I...
Rotten web citations cited in scholarly journals: use of time travel for retrieval
This is an in-depth and comprehensive comparative study on the availability of web citations in LIS and CMS journals articles spanning a period of 10 years to help authors, publishers, and editorial staff to ensure that web citations will be accessible in the future.


HTTP 404-page (not) found: Recovery of decayed URL citations
URL decay in MEDLINE - a 4-year follow-up study
Repeated citation of URLs suggests calculation of an electronic impact factor (eIF) would be an objective, quantitative way to measure the impact of Internet-based resources on scientific research.
Web Citations Analysis of the JASSS: the First Ten Years
The study revealed that at first check 75% of web citations are accessible while 25% disappeared, and it is notable that rate of accessibility increased to 94% and rate of decay decreased to 6% after using complementary pathways.
Link decay in leading information science journals
Investigating the link decay phenomenon in three leading information science journals found that approximately 31p of all citations were not accessible during the time of testing, and the majority of errors were due to missing content (HTTP Error Code 404).
Disappearing act: decay of uniform resource locators in health care management journals.
In addition to using website archiving tools like WebCite, publishers should require authors to both keep copies of Internet-based information they used and deposit copies of data with the publishers.
Accessibility and decay of web citations in five open access ISI journals
The study revealed that at first check 73 per cent of URLs are accessible, while 27 per cent have disappeared, and the “.net” domain has the greatest stability and persistence among all domains, while the most stable file format is PDF.
Raising the Dead: Recovery of Decayed Online Citations
Recent studies show that online footnotes decay over time. This study investigates how researchers can resurrect lapsed citations, comparing two retrieval methods—online archives and search engines.
Accessibility of online resources cited in scholarly LIS journals: A study of Emerald ISI-ranked journals
A study of the state of online resources cited in scholarly library and information science journals which are ranked in ISI and available in the Emerald database in terms of accessibility and decay finds that using the Wayback Machine and Google revived online resources.
Ecology in the information age: patterns of use and attrition rates of internet‐based citations in ESA journals, 1997–2005
A search for papers in four Ecological Society of America journals from 1997 to 2005 for articles containing a citation to material on the internet found that 19–30% of the location-based links were unavailable and that there was a positive relationship between the age of an article and the probability of the link being inactive.
Analyzing web citations availability and half-life in medical journals: A case study in an Iranian university
Comparisons of internet resource citations in scientific articles of the journals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from 2005‐2009 indicated that the sum of web citations is less than 1 per cent of total citations and only 52% of internet citations in studied journal articles are available.