Brief history of the Phobos mission

@article{Sagdeev1989BriefHO,
  title={Brief history of the Phobos mission},
  author={Roal'd. Z. Sagdeev and Alexander Zakharov},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1989},
  volume={341},
  pages={581-585}
}
The spacecraft Phobos 1 and 2 were launched on 7 and 12 July 1988. The mission was to have three stages: investigations of the Sun and interplanetary space during the flight from Earth to Mars; studies of both Mars and Phobos during the orbit of the spacecraft around Mars; and studies of Phobos as the spacecraft approached to within 50 m of its surface. Contact with Phobos 1 was lost on 1 September 1988 and contact was also lost with Phobos 2 just before the third stage of the mission. This… 
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References

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Television observations of Phobos
IN February and March 1989 the Phobos 2 spacecraft took 37 television images of the moon Phobos from a distance of 190-1,100 km. These images complement the data from the Mariner 9 and Viking
Thermal imaging of the surface of Mars
THE aim of the Thermoscan experiment on the Phobos spacecraft is the further study of the thermal properties of the surface of Mars that was begun by the Soviet Mars spacecraft and the Mariner and
First measurements of the ionospheric plasma escape from Mars
BEFORE the Phobos mission, the magnetosphere of Mars was relatively unexplored. Basically all data on the charged-particle environment of Mars had come from the Soviet Mars missions (Mars 2, 3, 4 and
Energetic ions in the close environment of Mars and particle shadowing by the planet
THE twin-telescope particle-detector system, SLED, aboard Phobos 2 recorded flux enhancements in the range 30–350 keV in the same general location in the close environment of Mars, over eight days at
First measurements of plasma waves near Mars
HERE we report preliminary results from electic field measurements in the environment of Mars using the plasma-wave system on board the Soviet spacecraft Phobos 2. It also includes a Lang-muir probe
Magnetic fields near Mars: first results
BASED on the examples of the Earth and Moon, we expect that Mars has or once had an intrinsic planetary magnetic field. The Earth has a large magnetic moment, 8 x 1015 T m3, and the Moon's remanent
Determination of the elemental composition of martian rocks from Phobos 2
PREVIOUS orbiter and lander pictures have given an indication of the general morphology of the surface of Mars and of some relatively small features on the surface. Here we have determined the
Observation of electron and ion fluxes in the vicinity of Mars with the HARP spectrometer
THE highly elliptical orbits of the Phobos 2 spacecraft, early in February 1989, proved particularly useful for plasma and field investigations of the martian environment. The low-altitude (∼ 860 km)
Results from the ISM experiment
THE imaging spectrometer ISM, operating in the near infrared, is the first ever flown in space for planetary observation. With a spectral range of 0.76–3.14μm, its main goals were to obtain
Ions of martian origin and plasma sheet in the martian magnetosphere: initial results of the TAUS experiment
UNLIKE plasma instruments used on previous space missions to Mars, the TAUS instrument on Phobos 2 was designed so that the energy per charge and angular spectra of three species of ions could be
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