Brief history of the Phobos mission

  title={Brief history of the Phobos mission},
  author={Roal'd. Z. Sagdeev and Alexander Zakharov},
The spacecraft Phobos 1 and 2 were launched on 7 and 12 July 1988. The mission was to have three stages: investigations of the Sun and interplanetary space during the flight from Earth to Mars; studies of both Mars and Phobos during the orbit of the spacecraft around Mars; and studies of Phobos as the spacecraft approached to within 50 m of its surface. Contact with Phobos 1 was lost on 1 September 1988 and contact was also lost with Phobos 2 just before the third stage of the mission. This… 
The plasma environment of Mars: Phobos mission results. A 1990 status
Abstract The PHOBOS-2 spacecraft was operational in Martian orbit for almost two months (from 29 January to 27 March, 1989). The orbits and the on-board experiments allowed measurements of magnetic
Quasi-Synchronous Orbits Around Phobos in the Context of a Phobos Sample Return Mission
In this work quasi-synchronous orbits around Phobos are studied from a preliminary mission design point of view. Addressed issues include stability of the orbits, possible choices of specic suitable
Science operation plan of Phobos and Deimos from the MMX spacecraft
The science operations of the spacecraft and remote sensing instruments for the Martian Moon eXploration (MMX) mission are discussed by the mission operation working team. In this paper, we describe
Science Operation Plan of Phobos and Deimos From the MMX Spacecraft
The Phobos observations during the first 1.5 years of the 76 spacecraft's stay around Mars, and the Deimos observations before leaving the Martian 77 system are described.
Project of the mission to Phobos
This article provides the main scientific objectives and characteristics of the Phobos-Soil project, intended to fly to the Martian satellite Phobos, deliver its soil samples to the Earth, as well as
Magnetic field environment of Mars as studied by Phobos-2
Abstract Magnetic field measurements in the Martian environment, as they were made from the Phobos-2 spacecraft are presented and discussed for the two different orbital regimes of a Mars-approaching
This paper reports on an update to the orbits and masses of the Martian satellites Phobos and Deimos. We obtained the orbits by fitting a numerical integration to all available Earth-based astrometry
Low cost mission to Phobos and Deimos
Abstract The motivation to continue the exploration of Phobos and Deimos is strongly supported by the need to understand the basic scientific nature of the Martian moons both as representatives of
Simulations of Quasi-Satellite Orbits Around Phobos
DOI: 10.2514/1.44434 In this work, quasi-synchronous orbits around Phobos are studied from a preliminary mission design point of view. Addressed issues include stability of the orbits, possible
Irregularly Shaped Satellites-Phobos & Deimos- moons of Mars, and their evolutionary history
Phobos, a moon of Mars, is below the Clarke synchronous orbit and due to tidal interaction is losing altitude. With this altitude loss it is doomed to the fate of total destruction by direct


Television observations of Phobos
IN February and March 1989 the Phobos 2 spacecraft took 37 television images of the moon Phobos from a distance of 190-1,100 km. These images complement the data from the Mariner 9 and Viking
Thermal imaging of the surface of Mars
THE aim of the Thermoscan experiment on the Phobos spacecraft is the further study of the thermal properties of the surface of Mars that was begun by the Soviet Mars spacecraft and the Mariner and
First measurements of the ionospheric plasma escape from Mars
BEFORE the Phobos mission, the magnetosphere of Mars was relatively unexplored. Basically all data on the charged-particle environment of Mars had come from the Soviet Mars missions (Mars 2, 3, 4 and
Energetic ions in the close environment of Mars and particle shadowing by the planet
THE twin-telescope particle-detector system, SLED, aboard Phobos 2 recorded flux enhancements in the range 30–350 keV in the same general location in the close environment of Mars, over eight days at
First measurements of plasma waves near Mars
HERE we report preliminary results from electic field measurements in the environment of Mars using the plasma-wave system on board the Soviet spacecraft Phobos 2. It also includes a Lang-muir probe
Magnetic fields near Mars: first results
BASED on the examples of the Earth and Moon, we expect that Mars has or once had an intrinsic planetary magnetic field. The Earth has a large magnetic moment, 8 x 1015 T m3, and the Moon's remanent
Determination of the elemental composition of martian rocks from Phobos 2
PREVIOUS orbiter and lander pictures have given an indication of the general morphology of the surface of Mars and of some relatively small features on the surface. Here we have determined the
Observation of electron and ion fluxes in the vicinity of Mars with the HARP spectrometer
THE highly elliptical orbits of the Phobos 2 spacecraft, early in February 1989, proved particularly useful for plasma and field investigations of the martian environment. The low-altitude (∼ 860 km)
Results from the ISM experiment
THE imaging spectrometer ISM, operating in the near infrared, is the first ever flown in space for planetary observation. With a spectral range of 0.76–3.14μm, its main goals were to obtain
Ions of martian origin and plasma sheet in the martian magnetosphere: initial results of the TAUS experiment
UNLIKE plasma instruments used on previous space missions to Mars, the TAUS instrument on Phobos 2 was designed so that the energy per charge and angular spectra of three species of ions could be