Structural insights into the centronuclear myopathy-associated functions of BIN1 and dynamin 2
Autosomal recessive centronuclear myopathy (CNM2), caused by mutations in bridging integrator 1 (BIN1), is a mildly progressive neuromuscular disorder characterized by abnormally centralized myonuclei and muscle weakness. BIN1 is important for membrane sensing and remodeling in vitro in different cell types. However, to fully understand the biological roles of BIN1 in vivo and to answer critical questions concerning the muscle-specific function of BIN1 in vertebrates, robust small animal models are required. In this study, we create and characterize a novel zebrafish model of CNM2 using antisense morpholinos. Immunofluorescence and histopathological analyses of Bin1-deficient zebrafish skeletal muscle reveal structural defects commonly reported in human CNM2 biopsies. Live imaging of zebrafish embryos shows defective calcium release in bin1 morphants, linking the presence of abnormal triads to impairments in intracellular signaling. RNA-mediated rescue assays demonstrate that knockdown of zebrafish bin1 can reliably examine the pathogenicity of novel BIN1 mutations in vivo. Finally, our results strongly suggest that the phosphoinositide-binding domain of BIN1, present only in skeletal muscle isoforms, may be more critical for muscle maturation and maintenance than for early muscle development. Overall, our data support that BIN1 plays an important role in membrane tubulation and may promote skeletal muscle weakness in CNM2 by disrupting machinery necessary for excitation-contraction coupling in vertebrate organisms. The reproducible phenotype of Bin1-deficient zebrafish, together with the generalized advantages of the teleost system, makes this model readily adaptable to high-throughput screening strategies and may be used to identify therapies for CNM2 and related neuromuscular diseases.