Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-Puffs in Transitional Disks

  title={Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-Puffs in Transitional Disks},
  author={Eve J. Lee and Eugene Chiang},
  journal={arXiv: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics},
The riddle posed by super-Earths (1-4$R_\oplus$, 2-20$M_\oplus$) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas… Expand

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