Breathlessness in humans activates insular cortex.

@article{Banzett2000BreathlessnessIH,
  title={Breathlessness in humans activates insular cortex.},
  author={Robert Banzett and Henrietta E Mulnier and Kevin Murphy and Stuart D. Rosen and Richard J. S. Wise and Lewis Adams},
  journal={Neuroreport},
  year={2000},
  volume={11 10},
  pages={2117-20}
}
Dyspnea (shortness of breath, breathlessness) is a major and disabling symptom of heart and lung disease. The representation of dyspnea in the cerebral cortex is unknown. In the first study designed to explore the central neural structures underlying perception of dyspnea, we evoked the perception of severe 'air hunger' in healthy subjects by restraining… CONTINUE READING