Breastfeeding During Infancy and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Adulthood

@article{RichEdwards2004BreastfeedingDI,
  title={Breastfeeding During Infancy and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Adulthood},
  author={Janet W. Rich-Edwards and Meir J. Stampfer and JoAnn E. Manson and Bernard A Rosner and Frank B. Hu and Karin B. Michels and Walter C. Willett},
  journal={Epidemiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={15},
  pages={550-556}
}
Background: Numerous studies have reported associations between the type of feeding during infancy and subsequent cardiovascular risk factors. Only 2 studies have evaluated the relation between having been breastfed and the risk of adult cardiovascular events. Methods: We examined this association among 87,252 female participants of the longitudinal Nurses’ Health Study. Participants (all born between 1921 and 1946) reported in 1992 whether and for how long they were breastfed. During 8 years… 
Breastfeeding in infancy and adult cardiovascular disease risk factors.
TLDR
Examination of the relations between maternal breastfeeding history and cardiovascular risk factors in Framingham Third Generation participants found that breastfeeding in infancy is inversely associated with adult BMI and positively associated with HDL cholesterol.
Breastfeeding is protective to diabetes risk in young adults: a longitudinal study
TLDR
Findings of this study suggest that infants who are breastfed for longer than 4 months have a substantial protective effect against the development of diabetes in young adulthood, which is independent of current BMI.
Does breastfeeding influence risk of type 2 diabetes in later life? A quantitative analysis of published evidence.
TLDR
Breastfeeding in infancy is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, with marginally lower insulin concentrations in later life, and with lower blood glucose and serum insulin concentration in infancy.
Infant-feeding patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood: data from five cohorts in low- and middle-income countries
TLDR
There was no evidence that longer duration of breastfeeding is protective against adult hypertension, diabetes or overweight/adiposity in these low-/middle-income populations and further research is required to determine whether ‘exclusive’ breastfeeding may be protective.
Breastfeeding duration in infancy and adult risks of type 2 diabetes in a high‐income country
TLDR
It is found that the inverse association between the duration of breastfeeding and risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood is considerably weakened and no longer significant after adjustment for prenatal and postnatal factors in the infant and mother.
Breastfeeding is not associated with left cardiac structures and blood pressure during the first two years of life. The Generation R Study.
TLDR
The hypothesis that early postnatal cardiovascular adaptations underlie the previously shown associations between breastfeeding and cardiovascular disease in adulthood is not supported.
Breastfeeding and obesity at 21 years: a cohort study.
TLDR
Findings of this investigation are consistent with breastfeeding not independently affecting body mass index in young adults, although duration of breastfeeding may not play a substantial role in preventing adult onset obesity.
Does having been breastfed in infancy influence lipid profile in later life?: a review of the literature.
TLDR
Experimental evidence from the follow-up into adolescence of nutritional manipulation trials in preterm infants provides support for the hypothesis that breast milk may programme a beneficial lipid profile in later life, but there is little consistent evidence that any effect of breastfeeding on lipids translates into a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in laterlife.
Does initial breastfeeding lead to lower blood cholesterol in adult life? A quantitative review of the evidence.
TLDR
Initial breastfeeding (particularly when exclusive) may be associated with lower blood cholesterol concentrations in later life, and moves to reduce the cholesterol content of formula feeds below those of breast milk should be treated with caution.
Breastfeeding and Atherosclerosis: Intima-Media Thickness and Plaques at 65-Year Follow-Up of the Boyd Orr Cohort
TLDR
Breastfeeding in infancy may be associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis in later life, and measurement error and power considerations limit the extent to which conclusions about the mechanisms underlying this relationship can be made.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 50 REFERENCES
A prospective study of postmenopausal estrogen therapy and coronary heart disease.
TLDR
The hypothesis that the postmenopausal use of estrogen reduces the risk of severe coronary heart disease is supported.
Relation of infant feeding to adult serum cholesterol concentration and death from ischaemic heart disease.
TLDR
Age of weaning and method of infant feeding may influence adult serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and mortality from ischaemic heart disease.
Is breast-feeding in infancy associated with adult longevity?
TLDR
The present study does not provide strong evidence that breast-feeding is associated with adult longevity, and the reduced risk of death from injury may reflect chance, in that the association was significant only for men, or it may reflect psychosocial correlates of breast- feeding practices.
Risk of overweight among adolescents who were breastfed as infants.
TLDR
Infants who were fed breast milk more than infant formula, or who were breastfed for longer periods, had a lower risk of being overweight during older childhood and adolescence.
Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Experiences from the Finnish Multicentre Study Regarding the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease
TLDR
Serum cholesterol levels have decreased in Finnish children during the 1980s by about 1 % per year, which should be reflected in coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in the future.
Effect of breast-feeding on plasma cholesterol and weight in young adults.
TLDR
The hypothesis that factors acting very early in life affect the risk of disease in adults is supported, particularly in women who had been breast-fed.
Duration of breast feeding and arterial distensibility in early adult life: population based study
TLDR
The longer the period of breast feeding the less distensible the artery wall in early adult life, with no sex differences, and breast feeding in infancy is related to reduced arterial function 20 years later.
Validity of maternal reporting of breast feeding history and the association with blood lipids in 17 year olds in Jerusalem.
The validity of mothers' reporting of the breast feeding history of their children more than 20 years after their birth was studied in a Jerusalem population. Among 74 study subjects, duration of
Early determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in adults. B. Blood pressure
TLDR
Influences of poor environment acting in early childhood may be important determinants of blood pressure in adulthood.
Self-reported birthweight and history of having been breastfed among younger women: an assessment of validity.
TLDR
The validity of self-reported birthweight and breastfeeding history by these middle-aged women appears to be high.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...