Breast development in pediatric patients from birth to puberty: physiology, pathology and imaging correlation

  title={Breast development in pediatric patients from birth to puberty: physiology, pathology and imaging correlation},
  author={Ricardo Restrepo and Luisa F. Cervantes and Alexa M. Swirsky and Alejandro D{\'i}az},
  journal={Pediatric Radiology},
  pages={1959 - 1969}
Breast tissue undergoes a series of changes from birth to puberty. The majority of the changes are transient, related to physiological hormonal changes. Although the breast is identical in both sexes at birth, its histology and development will eventually differ. It is important for radiologists to have a basic understanding of endocrinological changes and appearance on imaging to avoid potential pitfalls, particularly on ultrasound, which is the primary modality used to evaluate the breast. 



Pathologic Breast Conditions in Childhood and Adolescence

  • K. BockV. Duda U. Wagner
  • Medicine
    Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • 2005
The aim of this study was to analyze the underlying diagnoses and diseases and determine the status of breast sonography in the diagnostic process.

Breast Development in Puberty

  • J. Drife
  • Medicine
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1986
The structural and functional changes that occur at puberty are described, and what is known about the endocrine control of these changes in the human is summarized.

Breast development and disorders in the adolescent female.

Breast asymmetry during adolescence: physiologic and non-physiologic causes.

Severe breast asymmetry in adolescence may be due to congenital factors, diseases involving the breast tissue, or to the effects of medical treatment, and may have severe adverse psychological and social implications.

Sonographic Features of Physiologic Neonatal Breast Enlargement

A 3-week-old female patient who presented with a history of left breast enlargement with redness and tenderness for 2 days, who was clinically diagnosed and managed for neonatal mastitis, which was actually a neonatal breast enlargements with adjacent cellulitis.

Pediatric and adolescent breast masses: a review of pathophysiology, imaging, diagnosis, and treatment.

The benign breast conditions that arise as part of the spectrum of normal breast development, as well as the usually benign but neoplastic process that may develop within an otherwise normal breast are reviewed.

Spectrum of US findings in pediatric and adolescent patients with palpable breast masses.

Though extremely rare, breast malignancies do occur in the pediatric and adolescent population, palpable findings were all due to benign causes, which is concordant with the literature.

Ultrasound of pediatric breast masses: what to do with lumps and bumps

The imaging appearances of the normally developing pediatric breast are described and the imaging findings of a spectrum of diseases, including those that are benign (fibroadenoma, juvenile papillomatosis, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, gynecomastia, abscess and fat necrosis), malignant (breast carcinoma and metastases), and have variable malignant potential (phyllodes tumor).