Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies

@article{Calle1996BreastCA,
  title={Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies},
  author={Eugenia E. Calle and Clark W. Jr. Heath and Heidi L. Miracle-McMahill and Ralph J. Coates and Jonathan M. Liff and Silvia Franceschi and Renato Talamini and Nivat Chantarakul and Suporn Koetsawang and D. RachawatRachawat and A. Morabia and Louise Schuman and Walter F. Stewart and Moys{\'e}s Szklo and Chris Bain and F D Schofield and Victor Siskind and P. Band and Andrew J Coldman and Richard P. Gallagher and T. Greg Hislop and P. Yang and Stephen W. Duffy and L. M. Kolonel and Abraham M. Y. Nomura and Mark W. Oberle and Howard W. Ory and Herbert B. Peterson and Hoyt G. Wilson and Phyllis A. Wingo and K. Ebeling and Dieter Kunde and P. Nishan and Graham A. Colditz and Nicholas G. Martin and Tieng Pardthaisong and Suporn Silpisornkosol and Choti Theetranont and Banpot Boosiri and Supawat Chutivongse and Prasarn Jimakorn and Pramuan Virutamasen and Chansuda Wongsrichanalai and A. J. Mcmichael and T. E. Rohan and Marianne Ewertz and Carle Paul and David C. G. Skegg and Peter Boyle and M. Evstifeeva and Janet R. Daling and Kathleen E. Malone and Elizabeth A. Noonan and Janet L. Stanford and David B. Thomas and NoelS. Weiss and Emily White and Nadine Andrieu and Alain Br{\'e}mond and Franqois Clavel and B{\'e}atrice Gairard and Jacques Lansac and Libero Della Piana and Robert Renaud and S. R P Fine and H{\'e}ctor Rodriguez Cuevas and Patricia Reyna Ontiveros and Antonio Palet and S. B. Salazar and N. Aristizabel and Alvaro Cuadros and Agnes Bachelot and M. G. L{\^e} and Judith Deacon and Julian Peto and C. N. Taylor and Esther Alfandary and Baruch Modan and Elaine Ron and Gary D. Friedman and Robert A. Hiatt and Tim Bishop and J. Kosmelj and Maja Primic‐Žakelj and Bo{\vz}ena Ravnihar and J. Stare and W. Larry Beeson and Graeme Fraser and D. S. Allen and Richard D. Bulbrook and Jack M Cuzick and Ian S. Fentiman and John L. Hayward and D. Y. Wang and Robert L. Hanson and M. C. Leske and Martin Christopher Mahoney and P. C. Nasca and Andre O. Varma and A. L. Weinstein and Torgil R. M{\"o}ller and Hampus Olsson and Jonas Ranstam and R. Alexandra Goldbohm and Piet A. Brandt and R. A. Apelo and Jose Baens and J. R. de la Cruz and B. Javier and L. B. Lacaya and Corazon A Ngelangel and C. La Vecchia and Eva Negri and Ettore Marubini and Monica Ferraroni and Mariette Gerber and Sylvia Richardson and Claire S{\'e}gala and David Gatei and Patrick Kenya and Alfred Kungu and J. G. Mati and Louise A. Brinton and Robert N. Hoover and Catherine Schairer and Robert Spirtas and H. P. Lee and Matti A Rookus and F. V. van Leeuwen and J. A. Schoenberg and Marilie D. Gammon and E Aileen Clarke and Louise J. Jones and Klim McPherson and Andrew Neil and M. P. Vessey and David G R Yeates and Valerie Beral and Diana Bull and Barbara Crossley and Carol Hermon and S. Jones and Timothy J. Key and C. Lewis and Gillian K Reeves and P. Smith and Rory Collins and Richard Doll and Richard Peto and Philip C Hannaford and Clifford R. Kay and Luis Rosero-Bixby and Yan Gao and Jian-Min Yuan and Hsin-Yen Wei and Tao Yun and Cheng Zhiheng and Geoffrey Berry and Joan Cooper Booth and Tatiana Jelihovsky and Robert Maclennan and R. Shearman and Q. S. Wang and Cornelia J. Baines and Anthony B Miller and Claus Wall and Eiliv Lund and Helge Stalsberg and A. Dabancens and Luis Mart{\'i}nez and Ramiro Molina and Oriana Salas and Freda E. Alexander and B. S. Hulka and Clair E. D. Chilvers and Leslie Bernstein and Robert W. Haile and Annlia Paganini-Hill and Malcolm C. Pike and Ronald K. Ross and Giske Ursin and Mimi C. Yu and Hans-Olov Adami and Reinhold Bergstr{\"o}m and M. P. Longnecker and Polly A. Newcomb and T. M N Farley and Susan Holck and Olav Meirik},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={1996},
  volume={347},
  pages={1713-1727}
}

Oral Contraceptive Use and Risk of Breast Cancer among Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer: a Prospective Cohort Study

TLDR
The data raise the possibility that relatively long duration of oral contraceptive use may be inversely associated with risk among women with a family history of breast cancer.

Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk: A cohort study of 16 928 women 48 years and older

TLDR
The results of the population-based cohort study do not support the notion that former OC use increases breast cancer risk among HRT users, on the contrary there was an indication of a slightly lower risk in former OC users, restricted to current, long-term EP-HRT users.

RESEARCH No Increase in Breast Cancer Risk in Japanese Women Taking Oral Contraceptives: a Case-Control Study Investigating Reproductive, Menstrual and Familial Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

TLDR
Increased age rather than OC use had a greater effect on breast cancer risk, and this risk may be decreased in premenopausal women with OC use, but further long-term prospective studies are necessary.

Oral contraceptives, postmenopausal hormones, and risk of asynchronous bilateral breast cancer: the WECARE Study Group.

TLDR
No strong evidence is provided that OC or PMH use increases the risk of a second cancer in the contralateral breast and age at and time since first breast cancer diagnosis is considered.

Effect of Reproductive Factors and Oral Contraceptives on Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers and Noncarriers: Results from a Population-Based Study

TLDR
The results suggest that parity protects against breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, whereas breast-feeding does not, and that currently available low-dose oral contraceptives do not increase breast cancer risk in carriers.

Reproductive factors, exogenous female hormone use and breast cancer risk in Japanese: the Miyagi Cohort Study

TLDR
It is suggested that parity number and age at menopause have great effects on breast cancer risk among Japanese women.
...

References

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Oral contraceptives and breast cancer: latest findings in a large cohort study.

TLDR
The results of this study strengthen the evidence that oral contraceptive use by mature women does not increase breast cancer risk, but add little to the uncertainty about the effects of early use.

Oral contraceptives and breast cancer: results from an expanded case-control study.

TLDR
It is suggested that oral contraceptive effects may vary by stage of disease, but provide no overall evidence of an association between oral contraceptives and breast cancer.

Oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk in young women.

TLDR
There is some evidence that OCs containing less than 50 ug estrogen have a lower risk associated with their use than higher estrogen dose OCs and that there may be some protective effect of use of progestagen-only pill, but these apparent differences between OC types are only marginally significant statistically and need further investigation.

Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk among younger women.

TLDR
The relationship between oral contraceptives and breast cancer in young women appears to have a biologic basis rather than to be an artifact or the result of bias, and associations were also strongest for cancers diagnosed at advanced stages.

Breast cancer risk and oral contraceptive use: results from a large case-control study.

TLDR
The association of breast cancer risk with oral contraceptive use appeared stronger in women from Suffolk County than Nassau County, and the effect appeared to increase with number of years of use before the first pregnancy or before age 25, although numbers were small.

Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk in Denmark.

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Prospective study of oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer in women.

TLDR
Overall past use of oral contraceptives is not associated with a substantial increase in the risk of breast cancer, and women who used oral contraceptives for a long duration in early reproductive life was too small to permit firm conclusions regarding the risk.

Breast cancer among young U.S. women in relation to oral contraceptive use.

TLDR
Long-term oral contraceptive use among young women or use beginning near menarche may be associated with a small excess breast cancer risk, possibly due to susceptibility to genetic damage in breast epithelial cells at ages of high breast cell proliferative activity.
...