Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies

@article{Calle1996BreastCA,
  title={Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies},
  author={Eugenia E. Calle and Clark W. Jr. Heath and Heidi L. Miracle-McMahill and Ralph J. Coates and Jonathan M. Liff and Silvia Franceschi and Renato Talamini and Nivat Chantarakul and Suporn Koetsawang and D. RachawatRachawat and A. Morabia and Louise Schuman and Walter F. Stewart and Moys{\'e}s Szklo and Chris Bain and F D Schofield and V. Siskind and P. Band and Andrew J Coldman and Richard P. Gallagher and T. Greg Hislop and P. Yang and Stephen W. Duffy and L. M. Kolonel and Abraham M. Y. Nomura and Mark W. Oberle and Howard W. Ory and Herbert B. Peterson and Hoyt G. Wilson and Phyllis A. Wingo and K. Ebeling and Dieter Kunde and P. Nishan and Graham A. Colditz and Nicholas G. Martin and Tieng Pardthaisong and Suporn Silpisornkosol and Choti Theetranont and Banpot Boosiri and Supawat Chutivongse and Prasarn Jimakorn and Pramuan Virutamasen and Chansuda Wongsrichanalai and A. J. Mcmichael and Tom Rohan and Marianne Ewertz and Carle Paul and David C. G. Skegg and Peter Boyle and M. Evstifeeva and Janet R. Daling and Kathleen E. Malone and Elizabeth A. Noonan and Janet L. Stanford and David B. Thomas and NoelS. Weiss and Emily White and Nadine Andrieu and Alain Br{\'e}mond and Franqois Clavel and B{\'e}atrice Gairard and Jacques Lansac and Libero Della Piana and Robert Renaud and S. R P Fine and H{\'e}ctor Rodriguez Cuevas and Patricia Ontiveros and Antonio Palet and S. B. Salazar and N. Aristizabel and Alvaro Cuadros and Agnes Bachelot and Monique G. L{\^e} and J. M. Deacon and Julian Peto and C. N. Taylor and Esther Alfandary and Baruch Modan and Elaine Ron and Gary D. Friedman and Robert A. Hiatt and Tim Bishop and J. Kosmelj and Maja Primic‐Žakelj and Bo{\vz}ena Ravnihar and J. Stare and W. Larry Beeson and Graeme Fraser and D. S. Allen and Richard D. Bulbrook and Jack M Cuzick and Ian S. Fentiman and John L. Hayward and D. Y. Wang and Robert L. Hanson and M. C. Leske and Martin Christopher Mahoney and P. C. Nasca and A. Oedayarajsingh Varma and A. L. Weinstein and Torgil R. M{\"o}ller and Hampus Olsson and Jonas Ranstam and R. Alexandra Goldbohm and Piet A. Brandt and R. A. Apelo and Jose Baens and J. R. de la Cruz and B. Javier and L. B. Lacaya and Corazon A Ngelangel and C. La Vecchia and Eva Negri and Ettore Marubini and Monica Ferraroni and Mariette Gerber and Sylvia Richardson and Claire S{\'e}gala and David Gatei and Patrick Kenya and Alfred Kungu and J. G. Mati and Louise A. Brinton and Robert N. Hoover and Catherine Schairer and Robert Spirtas and H. P. Lee and Matti A Rookus and F. V. van Leeuwen and J. A. Schoenberg and Marilie D. Gammon and E Aileen Clarke and Louise J. Jones and Klim McPherson and Andrew Neil and M. P. Vessey and David G R Yeates and Valerie Beral and Diana Bull and Barbara Crossley and Carol Hermon and S. Jones and Timothy J. Key and C. Lewis and Gillian K. Reeves and P. Smith and Rory Collins and Richard Doll and Richard Peto and Philip C Hannaford and Clifford R. Kay and Luis Rosero-Bixby and Yan Gao and Jian-Min Yuan and H. Y. Wei and Tao Yun and Cheng Zhiheng and Geoffrey Berry and Joan Cooper Booth and Tatiana Jelihovsky and Robert Maclennan and R. Shearman and Q. S. Wang and Cornelia J. Baines and Anthony B Miller and Claus Wall and Eiliv Lund and Helge Stalsberg and A. Dabancens and Luis Mart{\'i}nez and Ramiro Molina and Oriana Salas and Freda E. Alexander and B. S. Hulka and Clair E.D. Chilvers and Leslie Bernstein and Robert W. Haile and Annlia Paganini-Hill and Malcolm C. Pike and Ronald K. Ross and Giske Ursin and Mimi C. Yu and Hans-Olov Adami and Reinhold Bergstr{\"o}m and M. P. Longnecker and Polly A. Newcomb and T. M N Farley and Susan Holck and Olav Meirik},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={1996},
  volume={347},
  pages={1713-1727}
}
BACKGROUND The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer has brought together and reanalysed the worldwide epidemiological evidence on the relation between breast cancer risk and use of hormonal contraceptives. METHODS Individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 studies conducted in 25 countries were collected, checked, and analysed centrally. Estimates of the relative risk for breast cancer were obtained by a modification of… Expand
Breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy: collaborative reanalysis of data from 51 epidemiological studies of 52 705 women with breast cancer and 108 411 women without breast cancer
TLDR
Of the many factors examined that might affect the relation between breast cancer risk and use of HRT, only a woman's weight and body-mass index had a material effect: the increase in the relative risk of breast cancer diagnosed in women using HRT and associated with long durations of use in current and recent users was greater for women of lower than of higher weight or body- mass index. Expand
Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50 302 women with breast cancer and 96 973 women without the disease
TLDR
The longer women breast feed the more they are protected against breast cancer, and the lack of or short lifetime duration of breastfeeding typical of women in developed countries makes a major contribution to the high incidence of breast cancer in these countries. Expand
Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58 209 women with breast cancer and 101 986 women without the disease
TLDR
Although women who have first-degree relatives with a history of breast cancer are at increased risk of the disease, most will never develop breast cancer, and most who do will be aged over 50 when their cancer is diagnosed. Expand
Oral Contraceptive Use and Risk of Breast Cancer among Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer: a Prospective Cohort Study
TLDR
The data raise the possibility that relatively long duration of oral contraceptive use may be inversely associated with risk among women with a family history of breast cancer. Expand
Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk: A cohort study of 16 928 women 48 years and older
TLDR
The results of the population-based cohort study do not support the notion that former OC use increases breast cancer risk among HRT users, on the contrary there was an indication of a slightly lower risk in former OC users, restricted to current, long-term EP-HRT users. Expand
Oral contraceptives, postmenopausal hormones, and risk of asynchronous bilateral breast cancer: the WECARE Study Group.
TLDR
No strong evidence is provided that OC or PMH use increases the risk of a second cancer in the contralateral breast and age at and time since first breast cancer diagnosis is considered. Expand
No increase in breast cancer risk in Japanese women taking oral contraceptives: a case-control study investigating reproductive, menstrual and familial risk factors for breast cancer.
TLDR
Increased age rather than OC use had a greater effect on breast cancer risk, and this risk may be decreased in premenopausal women with OC use, but further long-term prospective studies are necessary. Expand
Effect of Reproductive Factors and Oral Contraceptives on Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers and Noncarriers: Results from a Population-Based Study
TLDR
The results suggest that parity protects against breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, whereas breast-feeding does not, and that currently available low-dose oral contraceptives do not increase breast cancer risk in carriers. Expand
Reproductive factors, exogenous female hormone use and breast cancer risk in Japanese: the Miyagi Cohort Study
TLDR
It is suggested that parity number and age at menopause have great effects on breast cancer risk among Japanese women. Expand
Breast Cancer and Exogenous Estrogen in Oral Contraceptives and Postmenopausal Hormone Replacement
TLDR
A comprehensive review of the results of all previously published epidemiologic studies of breast cancer risk in relation to use of combined OCs found no evidence that the high dose of exogenous estrogen in oral contraceptives can initiate or promote breast cancer in humans. Expand
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The results of this study strengthen the evidence that oral contraceptive use by mature women does not increase breast cancer risk, but add little to the uncertainty about the effects of early use. Expand
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It is suggested that oral contraceptive effects may vary by stage of disease, but provide no overall evidence of an association between oral contraceptives and breast cancer. Expand
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Breast cancer risk and oral contraceptive use: results from a large case-control study.
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The association of breast cancer risk with oral contraceptive use appeared stronger in women from Suffolk County than Nassau County, and the effect appeared to increase with number of years of use before the first pregnancy or before age 25, although numbers were small. Expand
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TLDR
In both age groups, no significant association was detected between breast cancer risk and duration, age at start, latency or recency of OC use, and the data provided some limited support that OCs containing 50 micrograms or more oestrogen may be more harmful than pills with a lower oestrogens dose. Expand
ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE USE AND BREAST CANCER IN YOUNG WOMEN A Joint National Case-control Study in Sweden and Norway
TLDR
It is suggested that long-term use of OCs may increase the risk of breast cancer in young women. Expand
Oral contraceptives and risk of breast cancer in women aged 20-54 years
TLDR
It is concluded that 4 or more years of OC use, especially if partly before age 20, is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer developing at an early age, and limited evidence that the excess risk disappears as the cohort of young OC users ages. Expand
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TLDR
Overall past use of oral contraceptives is not associated with a substantial increase in the risk of breast cancer, and women who used oral contraceptives for a long duration in early reproductive life was too small to permit firm conclusions regarding the risk. Expand
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TLDR
Long-term oral contraceptive use among young women or use beginning near menarche may be associated with a small excess breast cancer risk, possibly due to susceptibility to genetic damage in breast epithelial cells at ages of high breast cell proliferative activity. Expand
Breast cancer in relation to patterns of oral contraceptive use.
TLDR
The association of breast cancer with use of oral contraceptives prior to ever giving birth has been observed in three studies, suggesting that the susceptibility of breast tissue to hormonal factors that influence the development of malignancy may be altered by having been exposed to the events of pregnancy. Expand
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