Breast Pain: Engorgement, Nipple Pain, and Mastitis.

  title={Breast Pain: Engorgement, Nipple Pain, and Mastitis.},
  author={P. Berens},
  journal={Clinical obstetrics and gynecology},
  volume={58 4},
  • P. Berens
  • Published 2015
  • Medicine
  • Clinical obstetrics and gynecology
This review explores current concepts surrounding breastfeeding complications including nipple pain and trauma, breast engorgement, mastitis, and breast abscess. The review discusses possible etiologies, risk factors, incidence, differential diagnosis, and suggested treatment strategies. The evidence that supports these management options is discussed. 
9 Citations
Nipple Pain Incidence, the Predisposing Factors, the Recovery Period After Care Management, and the Exclusive Breastfeeding Outcome.
Persistent nipple pain was a common problem and the active management would help the mothers recover within a 2-week period and there was no significant difference of exclusive breastfeeding rates between the mothers who had early care management and the mothers without nipple pain. Expand
Larvae of Musca domestica (common house fly) found intraoperatively in a male breast abscess
A 62-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to the authors' nationally accredited breast center with bilateral breast masses present for 7 years and new-onset pink nipple discharge for several months, where core needle biopsies revealed benign results, but the discordance between the biopsy, imaging, and suspicious discharge led to the decision to perform bilateral excisional biopsy. Expand
Human milk microbiota in sub-acute lactational mastitis induces inflammation and undergoes changes in composition, diversity and load
It is suggested that sub-acute mastitis has a bacterial origin, with increased bacterial loads, reduced diversity and altered composition, which partly recovered after treatment, suggesting a polymicrobial and variable etiology. Expand
Breastfeeding patterns and effects of minimal supplementation on breastfeeding exclusivity and duration in term infants: A prospective sub‐study of a randomised controlled trial
The aims of this study were to prospectively determine rates and factors associated with the type and duration of breastfeeding in the first year and examine the effect of minimal supplementation. Expand
Consensus Bundle on Postpartum Care Basics: From Birth to the Comprehensive Postpartum Visit.
Rising maternal mortality and morbidity rates, coupled with significant disparities in outcomes, highlight the need for tailored interventions to improve safety and well-being of families during the fourth trimester of pregnancy, which includes the period from birth to the comprehensive postpartum visit. Expand
Lactation Cessation and the Realities of Martyrdom in The Passion of Saint Perpetua
This article examines the significance of breastfeeding in the self-definition of Perpetua, author and protagonist of the Passio Perpetuae et Felicitatis. Through close readings of all relevantExpand
Gambogic acid alleviates inflammation and apoptosis and protects the blood-milk barrier in mastitis induced by LPS.
In vivo treatments with GA were found to reduce pathological symptoms markedly, and protected the blood-milk barrier from damage induced by LPS, suggesting that the natural product GA plays a potential role in mastitis treatment. Expand
Qualidade assistencial em aleitamento materno: implantação do indicador de trauma mamilar
O Indicador de Trauma Mamilar retrata a assistencia prestada em aleitamento materno mostrando-se como uma importante ferramenta para a construcao desse indicador de qualidade assistencial. Expand


Infants of mothers with persistent nipple pain exert strong sucking vacuums
It is found that infants of mothers experiencing persistent nipple pain exerted very strong intraoral vacuums during a breastfeed, and these vacuum levels were higher in mothers with high milk supply than in women with low milk supply. Expand
Breast engorgement: contributing variables and variables amenable to nursing intervention.
  • J. Moon, S. Humenick
  • Medicine
  • Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN
  • 1989
The focus of this study was to identify variables that correlate significantly with breast engorgement and that might be amenable to nursing interventions. Data on the initiation of feeding,Expand
Treatments for breast engorgement during lactation.
The objective of this update is to seek new information on the best forms of treatment for breast engorgement in lactating women and to assess the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Expand
Nipple pain, damage, and vasospasm in the first 8 weeks postpartum.
Nipple pain is a common problem for new mothers in Australia and often persists for several weeks and further studies are needed to establish the most effective means of preventing and treating breastfeeding problems in the postnatal period. Expand
Nipple Pain during Breastfeeding with or without Visible Trauma
The ramifications of nipple pain extend far beyond the act of breastfeeding, particularly for women whose pain lasts several months, Given the lack of evidence-based treatments, it is not surprising that pain is a major contributor to premature weaning. Expand
Incidence of breast abscess in lactating women: report from an Australian cohort
This study aims to report the incidence of breast abscess in lactating women and to investigate the role of breastfeeding in the development of abscesses. Expand
Candida albicans: is it associated with nipple pain in lactating women?
Growth of Candida albicans (nipple and milk) was found more often in the women with nipple pain (19%) than in the control group (3%, p < 0.01), and Staphylococcus aureus was also associated with nipples pain, and independently associated with nipple fissures. Expand
Lactation Mastitis: A Descriptive Study of the Experience
  • K. Wambach
  • Medicine
  • Journal of human lactation : official journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
  • 2003
Data collected via telephone interviews soon after diagnosis and daily through the seventh day after symptom onset documented that symptom intensity was moderate, peaked on the second day, and lasted on average 3 to 4 days. Expand
ABM clinical protocol #4: Mastitis, revised March 2014.
  • L. Amir
  • Medicine
  • Breastfeeding medicine : the official journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
  • 2014
These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Expand
Antibiotics for mastitis in breastfeeding women.
There is insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of lactational mastitis, and there is an urgent need to conduct high-quality, double-blinded RCTs to determine whether antibiotics should be used in this common postpartum condition. Expand